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Table 1 Basic characteristics of the articles included in the meta-analysis of TyG and risk of CVD and mortality in general population

From: Relationship between the triglyceride-glucose index and risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, years, country Study design/Mean follow-up time Study population Sample sizes Mean age (years)/Male (%) TyG detection Endpoint detection Endpoint TyG index Hazard risk (95% CI) Adjustments
Barzegar, 2020, Iran Prospective cohort study/16.1 years Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study
Free of CVD at baseline
7521 46.60/44.80 NA ECG and ICD-10 CAD (incidence)  < 8.4 1 Age, gender, WC, BMI, education, smoking status, physical activity, FHCVD, T2D, hypertension, lipid lowering drugs, LDL-C, HDL-C
8.4–8.7 1.25 (0.93–1.67)
8.7–9.0 1.49 (1.12–1.98)
9.0–9.4 1.34 (1.01–1.80)
 ≥ 9.4 1.84 (1.37–2.48)
Per SD (0.48) 1.19 (1.10–1.29)
ECG and ICD-10 CVD (incidence)  < 8.4 1
8.4–8.7 1.15 (0.89–1.49)
8.7–9.0 1.28 (0.99–1.65)
9.0–9.4 1.22 (0.94–1.58)
 ≥ 9.4 1.61 (1.23–2.11)
Per SD (0.48) 1.16 (1.07–1.25)
Hong, 2020, Korea Retrospective cohort study/8.2 years National Health Information Database
Free of ASCVD history, diabetes and hyperlipidemia
5,593,134 53.02/50.50 NA ICD-10 code I21 or I22 MI (incidence) Q1 1 Age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, regular physical activity, low socioeconomic status, BMI, hypertension, total cholesterol level, hypertension medications, warfarin, and aspirin
Q2 1.09 (1.07–1.12)
Q3 1.17 (1.14–1.19)
Q4 1.31 (1.28–1.35)
Kim, 2019, Korea Retrospective cohort study/5.66 years Kangbuk Samsung Health Study
General population
318,224 NA/51.89 NA Derived from the Korea National Statistical Office CV mortality Highest vs. lowest 1.26 (1.02–1.55) Age, sex, BMI
Derived from the Korea National Statistical Office All-cause mortality Highest vs. lowest 1.12 (1.03–1.22)
Kim, 2021, Korea Retrospective cohort study/5.97 years Korean National Health Insurance Service—National Health Screening cohort
Free of CVD, diabetes and tumor
144,603 56.00/53.96 NA ICD-10 codes I20-I25 CVD (men, incidence)  < 8.25 1 Age, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, BMI, SBP, LDL-C, economic status, and anti-hypertensive medications
8.25–8.61 1.11 (0.97–1.28)
8.61–9.00 1.19 (1.03–1.36)
 ≥ 9.00 1.23 (1.07–1.42)
CVD (women, incidence)  < 8.06 1
8.06–8.40 1.24 (1.02–1.51)
8.40–8.75 1.18 (0.97–1.44)
 ≥ 8.75 1.24 (1.02–1.51)
All-cause mortality (men)  < 8.25 1
8.25–8.61 1.05 (0.91–1.21)
8.61–9.00 1.11 (0.96–1.28)
 ≥ 9.00 1.06 (0.91–1.25)
All-cause mortality (women)  < 8.06 1
8.06–8.40 1.22 (0.94–1.58)
8.40–8.75 1.01 (0.78–1.31)
 ≥ 8.75 0.99 (0.76–1.28)
Li, 2019, China Retrospective cohort study/5.52 years Health check-up programme in Xinzheng and Xinmi City
Free of history of CVD, type 1 diabetes and obesity (BMI > 45 kg/m2)
6,078 70.45/53.08 Automatic biochemical analyser ICD-10 codes I20-I25 CAD (incidence)  < 8.32 1 Age and sex, living alone, current smoking, alcohol consumption, exercise, BMI, resting heart rate, SBP, HDL-C, LDL-C, and diabetic status, time-varying repeated measures of TyG
8.32–8.61 1.22 (0.93–1.60)
8.61–8.89 1.26 (0.96–1.66)
 ≥ 8.90 2.05 (1.58–2.64)
Per 1 unit 1.63 (1.39–1.90)
Hospital dataset for admissions CVD (incidence)  < 8.32 1
8.32–8.61 1.00 (0.80–1.25)
8.61–8.89 1.17 (0.94–1.45)
 ≥ 8.90 1.61 (1.31–1.99)
Per 1 unit 1.43 (1.24–1.63)
Liu, 2020, China Retrospective cohort study/98.20 months National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
General population
19,420 47.10/48.90 Enzymatic assays and hexokinase method ICD-10 codes I00–I09, I11, I13, I20–I51, I60–I69 CV mortality  ≤ 8.00 1 Age, sex, race, smoking, BMI, SBP, Egfr, TC, HDL-C, comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension), and medicine use (hypotensive drugs, hypoglycemic drugs, lipid-lowering medication, and antiplatelet drugs)
8.00–9.00 0.63 (0.43–0.93)
9.00–10.00 0.64 (0.41–1.00)
 > 10.00 1.37 (0.78–2.42)
Per 1 unit 1.29 (1.05–1.57)
The National Center for Health Statistics with personal data and death certificate All-cause mortality  ≤ 8.00 1
8.00–9.00 0.93 (0.77–1.11)
9.00–10.00 0.88 (0.72–1.09)
 > 10.00 1.51 (1.15–1.98)
Per 1 unit 1.10 (1.00–1.20)
Liu, 2021, China Prospective cohort study/10.33 years Kailuan General Hospital
Free of CVD and cancer history, and obesity (BMI > 45 kg/m2)
96,541 51.19/79.61 Hitachi 747 autoanalyzer Basis of clinical symptoms and dynamic changes in cardiac enzymes and/or biomarker concentrations and electrocardiogram results CVD (incidence)  ≤ 8.18 1 Age, sex, education, and current smoking status, current drinking status, physical activity, BMI, hypertension, diabetes, HDL-C, LDL-C, hs-CRP, lipid-lowering medication, antidiabetic medication, and antihypertensive medication
8.18–8.57 1.09 (1.02–1.18)
8.57–9.05 1.18 (1.09–1.27)
 > 9.05 1.20 (1.11–1.30)
Per 1 unit 1.09 (1.05–1.13)
Mirshafiei, 2021, Iran Prospective cohort study/6.00 years Mashhad stroke and heart association disorder study
Free of diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertensive and CVD history
9704 48.09/40.13 NA Clinic for confirmation and questionnaire CVD (incidence) Per 1 SD (0.82) 2.31 (1.93–2.76) Sex, age, smoking, BMI, family history of CVD, HTN, diabetes, and LDL
Cardiac mortality Per 1 SD (0.82) 2.30 (1.25–4.24)
Park, 2020, Korea Prospective cohort study/50 months A health risk assessment study
Free of IHD or ischemic stroke history, type 2 diabetes or a fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL, current use of dyslipidaemia medication or aspirin, and hs-CRP levels ≥ 10 mg/L
16,455 46.1/51.21 Enzymatic methods using a Hitachi 7600 Automated Chemistry Analyzer ICD-10 codes I20 and I21 Ischemic heart disease (incidence)  ≤ 8.08 1 Age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, hs-CRP level, mean arterial blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, and hypertension medication
8.09–8.45 1.61 (1.05–2.48)
8.46–8.85 1.85 (1.21–2.83)
 ≥ 8.86 2.28 (1.48–3.51)
Sanchez-Inigo, 2016, Spain Prospective cohort study/8.75 years Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort
Free of CVD at baseline, history of type 1 diabetes or latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, cancer in the palliative phase, familial hypertriglyceridaemia, extreme BMI (> 45 kg/m2) or a hypercoagulable state
5014 54.41/61.19 Hitachi 711 Chemistry Analyzer and hexokinase method ICD-10 code I20-I25, I63-I66, I73 and I74 CVD (incidence) 6.40–7.87 1 Age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, daily alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern (physically active/sedentary behavior), hypertension, T2D, anti-aggregation therapy, HDL-C, LDL-C
7.88–8.18 1.19 (0.83–1.71)
8.19–8.47 1.32 (0.93–1.88)
8.48–8.80 1.52 (1.07–2.16)
8.81–12.42 2.32 (1.65–3.26)
Tian, 2021, China Prospective cohort study/11.03 years Kailuan study
Free of MI history
98,849 51.81/79.75 Hexokinase/glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase method and enzymatic colorimetric method Combinations of chest pain symptoms, electrocardiographic signs, and cardiac enzyme levels MI (incidence) 7.70–8.06 1 Age, sex, level of education, income, smoking, alcohol abuse, physical activity, BMI, SBP, DBP, a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia, antidiabetic drugs, lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensive drugs, HDL-C, LDL-C, and hs-CRP at baseline
8.29–8.48 1.07 (0.90–1.29)
8.68–8.91 1.30 (1.03–1.62)
9.23–9.82 1.58 (1.18–2.12)
Per 1 unit 1.49 (1.26–1.76)
Vega, 2014, USA Retrospective cohort study/14.75 years Cooper Center Longitudinal Study
General population
39,447 44.90/100.00 NA ICD-9 codes 390Y449.9 for deaths before 1999 or ICD-10 codes I00YI78 for deaths occurring from 1999 to 2008 CV mortality Highest vs. lowest 0.89 (0.77–1.03) Age, BMI, RSBP, smoking, non-HDL-C
The National Death Index All-cause mortality Highest vs. lowest 0.89 (0.82–0.97)
  1. CAD: coronary artery disease; CVD: cardiovascular disease; ASCVD: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; TyG: triglyceride and glucose index; WC: waist circumference; BMI: body mass index; FHCVD: family history of cardiovascular disease; T2D: type 2 diabetes; HTP: hypertension; LDL: low density lipoprotein; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI: myocardial infarction; RSBP: resting systolic blood pressure; SBP: systolic blood pressure; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; TC: total cholesterol; hs-CRP: high-sensitive C-reactive protein; HbA1c: Glycated hemoglobin A1c; CT: computed tomography; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging; CCTA: coronary computed tomographic angiography; ECG: electrocardiogram; ICD-10: International Classification of Diseases, 10th Clinical Modification; NA: not application