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Table 1 Pre-clinical studies showing the efficacy of exosomes in improving cardiovascular function

From: Exosomal microRNAs in diabetic heart disease

Source of exosomes Type miRNAs involved Model Effect References
“Healthy” biological fluids Pericardial fluids let-7b-5p In vitro Improve cell viability
Increase proliferation
Increase networking capabilities
[49]
Normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat plasms In vivo Decreased systolic blood pressure
Reduced fibrosis
Reversed hypertensive structural changes
[166]
Heart tissue of exercised db/db mice miRNA-29b
miRNA-455
In vivo Reduced cardiac MMP9 expression and function [109]
Primary cardiomyocytes/CDC/CPC CDC miRNA-146a In vitro Promote angiogenesis
Promote proliferation
Decrease cell death
[104]
In vivo Promote angiogenesis
Promote cardiac regeneration
Hypoxic CPC miRNA-320, miRNA-222, miRNA-185 In vitro Promote angiogenesis [105]
In vivo Improve cardiac function
Reduce fibrosis
Endothelial cells/EPCs/Epithelial cells EPC miRNA-21a-5p
miRNA-222-3p
miRNA-221-3p
miRNA-155-5p
miRNA-29a-3p
In vivo Reduced atherosclerotic plaques
Ameliorate endothelium-dependent contractile dysfunction
Reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory factors
Improve vasodilation
[139]
EPC In vivo Accelerate cutaneous wound healing [177]
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
Increase pro-angiogenic molecules
Endothelial cells miRNA-126 In vivo Improves neurological and cognitive function
Increase axon density
Increase myelin density
Increase vascular density
Increase arterial diameter
[26]
In vitro Increased primary cortical neuron axonal outgrowth
Increases endothelial capillary tube formation
Stem cells human umbilical cord MSC - In vitro Reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis
Promote tube formation
Promote migration
[97]
In vivo Increase LV function
Reduced fibrosis
human umbilical cord MSC miRNA-19a In vitro Increased proliferation and migration
Decreased apoptotic rate and proteins
[178]
In vivo Improved cardiac function post MI
hESC-pg - In vivo Improve cardiac function [107]
MSC - In vivo Ameliorate myocardial injury
Reduce fibrosis and LV collagen
[120]
MSC miRNA-21a-5p In vitro Reduce pro-apoptotic gene products
Reduced cel death in response to oxygen-glucose deprevation
[106]
In vivo Reduce pro-apoptotic gene products
Reduce infarct size
bone marrow-derived macrophages miRNA-146b
miRNA-99a
miRNA-378a
In vivo Suppress inflammation
Reduce necrotic lesion
Reduce hematopoiesis
[138]
induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSC In vivo Enhance micro vessel density
Improve blood perfusion in ischemic limb
[146]
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
bone marrow MSCs miRNA-210-3p In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
[147]
In vivo Increase blood perfusion
Formation of new blood vessels
MenSCs In vivo Enhance neoangiogenisis
Enhanced re-epitheliarisation
[102]
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) miRNA-30d-5p In vivo Decreased cerebral injury area
Suppress autophagy
Promote M2 microglia/macrophage polarization
[156]
In vitro Suppress autophagy
MSC Let-7a
miRNA-23a
miRNA-125b
In vivo Increase myelin thickness and axonal diameters of sciatic nerves
Alleviate neurovascular dysfunction
Improve functional recovery
[161]
Therapeutically modulated exosomes/ exosomes from therapeutically modulated source Akt-overexpressing MSCs In vitro Promote angiogenesis
Promote endothelial cell proliferation
[179]
In vivo Improve cardiac function
Improve blood vessel formation
Transgenic (TG) mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of Hsp20 In vitro Reduce apoptosis
Improve angiogenesis
[99]
In vivo Promote exosome generation
Reduce adverse remodeling
Reduce apoptosis
Atorvastatin pre-treated bone marrow MSCs miRNA-221-3p In vivo Facilitate wound healing
Promote blood vessel formation
[149]
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
Antioxidant polyurethane nerve conduit with bone marrow stem cells derived exosomes In vivo Improve the neve functionality [163]
ADSC exosomes transfected with miRNA-93-5p mimic miRNA-93-5p In vivo Reduce myocardial damage after acute MI
Suppressed autophagy and inflammation after MI
[180]
In vitro Inhibit hypoxia-induced myocardial cell injury