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Table 1 Pre-clinical studies showing the efficacy of exosomes in improving cardiovascular function

From: Exosomal microRNAs in diabetic heart disease

Source of exosomes Type miRNAs involved Model Effect References
“Healthy” biological fluids Pericardial fluids let-7b-5p In vitro Improve cell viability
Increase proliferation
Increase networking capabilities
Normotensive Wistar Kyoto rat plasms In vivo Decreased systolic blood pressure
Reduced fibrosis
Reversed hypertensive structural changes
Heart tissue of exercised db/db mice miRNA-29b
In vivo Reduced cardiac MMP9 expression and function [109]
Primary cardiomyocytes/CDC/CPC CDC miRNA-146a In vitro Promote angiogenesis
Promote proliferation
Decrease cell death
In vivo Promote angiogenesis
Promote cardiac regeneration
Hypoxic CPC miRNA-320, miRNA-222, miRNA-185 In vitro Promote angiogenesis [105]
In vivo Improve cardiac function
Reduce fibrosis
Endothelial cells/EPCs/Epithelial cells EPC miRNA-21a-5p
In vivo Reduced atherosclerotic plaques
Ameliorate endothelium-dependent contractile dysfunction
Reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory factors
Improve vasodilation
EPC In vivo Accelerate cutaneous wound healing [177]
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
Increase pro-angiogenic molecules
Endothelial cells miRNA-126 In vivo Improves neurological and cognitive function
Increase axon density
Increase myelin density
Increase vascular density
Increase arterial diameter
In vitro Increased primary cortical neuron axonal outgrowth
Increases endothelial capillary tube formation
Stem cells human umbilical cord MSC - In vitro Reduce cardiomyocyte apoptosis
Promote tube formation
Promote migration
In vivo Increase LV function
Reduced fibrosis
human umbilical cord MSC miRNA-19a In vitro Increased proliferation and migration
Decreased apoptotic rate and proteins
In vivo Improved cardiac function post MI
hESC-pg - In vivo Improve cardiac function [107]
MSC - In vivo Ameliorate myocardial injury
Reduce fibrosis and LV collagen
MSC miRNA-21a-5p In vitro Reduce pro-apoptotic gene products
Reduced cel death in response to oxygen-glucose deprevation
In vivo Reduce pro-apoptotic gene products
Reduce infarct size
bone marrow-derived macrophages miRNA-146b
In vivo Suppress inflammation
Reduce necrotic lesion
Reduce hematopoiesis
induced pluripotent stem cells-derived MSC In vivo Enhance micro vessel density
Improve blood perfusion in ischemic limb
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
bone marrow MSCs miRNA-210-3p In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
In vivo Increase blood perfusion
Formation of new blood vessels
MenSCs In vivo Enhance neoangiogenisis
Enhanced re-epitheliarisation
Adipose-derived stem cell (ADSCs) miRNA-30d-5p In vivo Decreased cerebral injury area
Suppress autophagy
Promote M2 microglia/macrophage polarization
In vitro Suppress autophagy
MSC Let-7a
In vivo Increase myelin thickness and axonal diameters of sciatic nerves
Alleviate neurovascular dysfunction
Improve functional recovery
Therapeutically modulated exosomes/ exosomes from therapeutically modulated source Akt-overexpressing MSCs In vitro Promote angiogenesis
Promote endothelial cell proliferation
In vivo Improve cardiac function
Improve blood vessel formation
Transgenic (TG) mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of Hsp20 In vitro Reduce apoptosis
Improve angiogenesis
In vivo Promote exosome generation
Reduce adverse remodeling
Reduce apoptosis
Atorvastatin pre-treated bone marrow MSCs miRNA-221-3p In vivo Facilitate wound healing
Promote blood vessel formation
In vitro Promote migration
Promote proliferation
Promote tube formation
Antioxidant polyurethane nerve conduit with bone marrow stem cells derived exosomes In vivo Improve the neve functionality [163]
ADSC exosomes transfected with miRNA-93-5p mimic miRNA-93-5p In vivo Reduce myocardial damage after acute MI
Suppressed autophagy and inflammation after MI
In vitro Inhibit hypoxia-induced myocardial cell injury