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Table 1 Clinical Characteristics of the CHF population classified as Euglycemic, IR, and DM

From: Progressive right ventricular dysfunction and exercise impairment in patients with heart failure and diabetes mellitus: insights from the T.O.S.CA. Registry

Characteristics Study cohort (n = 480) Euglycemic (n = 172) IR (n = 188) T2D (n = 120) Pearson’s Chi-squared ANOVA F-value Kruskal–Wallis Chi-squared p-value
Age (year) 62.1 ± 12.2 62.5 ± 14.8 59.8 ± 11.3 64.7 ± 9.4§   6.1    < 0.01
Sex (male) 356 (74%) 117 (68%) 137 (72%) 102 (85%) 0.2    0.9
NYHA class n (%) 5.1    0.3
 I 43 19 (13.5%) 17 (10.8%) 7 (5.9%)     
 II 224 73 (51.8%) 88 (55.7%) 63 (52.9%)     
 III–IV 144 49 (34.7%) 53 (33.5%) 49 (41.2%)     
 Ischemic/non ischemic aetiology 220/197 56/84 82/37 82/76 21.6     < 0.001
 Year of disease 11 [6–17] 12 [6–17] 10 [6–17] 11 [7–18]    5.5 0.06
Systolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 120 ± 18 118 ± 17 118 ± 17 122 ± 19§   1.9   0.15
Diastolic blood pressure (mm/Hg) 74 ± 10 74 ± 12 74 ± 9.3 74 ± 9.8   0.1   0.9
BMI (kg/m2) 28 ± 5.4 26 ± 4 30 ± 5* 30 ± 6*   27.3    < 0.001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 87 ± 41 79 ± 37 95 ± 42* 87 ± 43   6.0    < 0.01
Current smokers (%) 15.4 14.1 16.2 15.7 0.4    0.8
NT pro BNP (pg/ml) 935 [319–2822] 1134 [387–3580] 972 [200–2456] 952 [383–2824]    2.5 0.15
EF (%) 31.7 ± 7.2 31.5 ± 8.1 32.0 ± 7.7 31.6 ± 7.0   0.46   0.8
Atrial fibrillation n (%) 64 32 (24.1) 20 (28.1) 12 (20.4) 1.25    0.53
ICD (%) 213 65 (44.2) 82 (50) 66 (53.2) 2.3    0.3
CRT (%) 69 20 (13.7) 28 (17.1) 21 (16.9) 0.8    0.7
Glycemia (mg/dl) 113 ± 40 92 ± 13 108 ± 28* 145 ± 52*   86.3    < 0.001
Glycosylated hemoglobin (%) 6.3 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 0.5 6 ± 0.9 7.5 ± 1.6*   80.8    < 0.001
Insulinemia (microU/l) 12.9 (8.4–24.6) 6.9 (5.1–9.3) 18.4 (14.2–32.4)* 17.0 (11.1–38.7)*   193.55    < 0.001
HOMA-IR 3.5 (2.0–6.4) 1.7 (1.2–2.1) 4.8(3.5–8.0)* 5.3(3.5–13.7)*    254.1.01  < 0.001
THERAPY         
Insulin (%) 0 0 51 (13.6%)     
Antidiabetics (%) 0 0 72 (19.2%)     
Insulin and antidiabetics (%) 0 0 17 (4.6%)     
B-blocker (%)   135 (91.8) 117 (93.4) 156 (92.8) 0.3    0.8
ACE-I/ARBs (%)   90 (61.2) 101 (60.5) 73 (57.9) 0.3    0.8
MRA (%)   78 (53.1) 84 (50.3) 65 (52) 0.2    0.9
Diuretics (%)   104 (70.7) 136 (81.4) 103 (81.7) 6.7     < 0.05
Amiodarone (%)   38 (25.8) 36 (21.5) 22 (17.6) 2.7    0.3
Digoxin (%)   18 (12.2) 18 (10.8) 14 (11.1) 0.2    0.9
Antiplatelets (%)   53 (36.0) 59 (35.3) 41 (32.5) 0.4    0.8
Antithrombotic (%)   80 (29.0) 103 (37.4) 92 (33.4) 10.1     < 0.05
Lipid-lowering medications (%)   72 (49.0) 108 (64.7) 95 (76.0) 21.5     < 0.001
Ivabradine (%)   16 (10.9) 34 (20.3) 21 (16.8) 5.2    0.07
  1. NYHA, New York Heart Association; BMI, body mass index; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI); NT pro BNP, N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide; EF, ejection fraction; ICD, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator; CRT, cardiac resynchronization therapy; HOMA, HomeOstasis Model Assessment; ACE-I, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors; ARBs, angiotensin-receptor blockers; MRA, Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists
  2. *p < 0.05 respect Euglycemic
  3. §p < 0.05 respect IR