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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants according to the TyG variability tertiles

From: Triglyceride-glucose index variability and incident cardiovascular disease: a prospective cohort study

  Total (n = 49,579) TyG index variability P value SMD
Tertile 1 (n = 16,527) Tertile 2 (n = 16,526) Tertile 3 (n = 16,526)
Age, years 52.5 ± 11.8 53.3 ± 12.1 52.7 ± 11.8 51.6 ± 11.5  < 0.001 0.11
Age ≥ 60 years 12,093 (24.4) 4451 (26.9) 4135 (25.0) 3507 (21.2)  < 0.001 0.11
Male sex 37,977 (76.6) 12,413 (75.1) 12,579 (76.1) 12,985 (78.6)  < 0.001 0.07
Education (≥ high school) 13,766 (27.9) 4633 (28.1) 4671 (28.4) 4462 (27.1) 0.028 0.03
Income (≤ 1000 RMB/month) 22,510 (46.5) 7323 (45.3) 7521 (46.6) 7666 (47.7)  < 0.001 0.03
Current smoker 16,901 (34.2) 5397 (32.8) 5552 (33.7) 5952 (36.2)  < 0.001 0.06
Alcohol drinker 17,589 (35.6) 5626 (34.2) 5704 (34.6) 6259 (38.0)  < 0.001 0.08
Physical activity 6857 (13.9) 2448 (14.9) 2251 (13.7) 2158 (13.1)  < 0.001 0.03
Hypertension 22,298 (45.0) 7403 (44.8) 7333 (44.4) 7562 (45.8) 0.030 0.02
Diabetes 3154 (6.4) 919 (5.6) 932 (5.6) 1303 (7.9)  < 0.001 0.09
Hypercholesterolaemia 19,289 (38.9) 6435 (38.9) 6326 (38.3) 6528 (39.5) 0.074 0.02
Chronic kidney disease 3040 (6.1) 1075 (6.5) 1027 (6.2) 938 (5.7) 0.006 0.03
Antihypertensive agents 4548 (9.3) 1591 (9.7) 1509 (9.2) 1448 (8.9) 0.026 0.02
Body mass index, kg/m2 25.0 ± 3.4 25.0 ± 3.4 25.0 ± 3.4 25.1 ± 3.3 0.001 0.04
Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 24,984 (50.4) 8276 (50.1) 8246 (49.9) 8462 (51.2) 0.036 0.02
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg 130.1 ± 19.0 130.1 ± 19.3 129.9 ± 18.9 130.3 ± 18.7 0.113 0.02
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg 84.2 ± 10.8 83.9 ± 10.8 84.0 ± 10.8 84.6 ± 10.7  < 0.001 0.06
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.5 ± 1.5 5.4 ± 1.2 5.4 ± 1.1 5.6 ± 2.0  < 0.001 0.09
Estimated glomerular filtration rate 90.7 ± 19.9 90.0 ± 19.7 90.8 ± 20.2 91.2 ± 19.9  < 0.001 0.04
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.0 ± 1.3 5.0 ± 1.2 5.0 ± 1.1 5.0 ± 1.4 0.108 0.02
LDL-C, mmol/L 2.6 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.9 2.6 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 1.2 0.021 0.02
HDL-C, mmol/L 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.6 1.5 ± 0.5  < 0.001 0.07
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 1.2 (0.9, 1.8) 1.2 (0.9, 1.8) 1.4 (0.9, 2.2)  < 0.001 0.21
Hs-CRP, mg/dL 1.0 (0.5, 2.4) 1.0 (0.5, 2.4) 1.0 (0.5, 2.4) 1.0 (0.5, 2.5) 0.391 0.01
Hs-CRP > 3 mg/dL 9662 (19.7) 3216 (19.7) 3162 (19.3) 3284 (20.2) 0.143 0.02
Baseline TyG index 8.7 ± 0.7 8.6 ± 0.6 8.6 ± 0.6 8.8 ± 0.7  < 0.001 0.22
Mean TyG index 8.6 ± 0.6 8.6 ± 0.5 8.6 ± 0.5 8.7 ± 0.6  < 0.001 0.27
Variability of TyG index 0.2 (0.1, 0.4) 0.1 (0.0, 0.1) 0.2 (0.2, 0.3) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)  < 0.001 2.24
  1. Values are presented as number (%), mean ± SD, or median (interquartile range)
  2. TyG index triglyceride-glucose index, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, SMD standardized mean difference