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Table 3 Sex differences in CAD or CVD risk according to the presence or absence of MAFLD or MetS

From: Impact of metabolic syndrome and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease on cardiovascular risk by the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to sex

Group Events Rate* HR (95% confidence interval)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
  P-value   P-value   P-value
CAD  Men Total 2108 1.14       
  Neither MAFLD nor MetS 929 0.78 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  MAFLD only 576 1.40 1.74 (1.57–1.93) < 0.001 1.45 (1.31–1.61) < 0.001 1.35 (1.21–1.50) < 0.001
  MetS only 23 2.07 1.61 (1.06–2.44) 0.024 1.61 (1.06–2.43) 0.025 1.34 (0.88–2.03) 0.170
  Both MAFLD and MetS 580 2.55 2.84 (2.56–3.15) < 0.001 2.24 (2.02–2.49) < 0.001 1.72 (1.54–1.93) < 0.001
         Women Total 144 0.12       
  Neither MAFLD nor MetS 68 0.06 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  MAFLD only 7 0.15 2.03 (0.93–4.42) 0.075 1.63 (0.75–3.57) 0.220 1.48 (0.68–3.24) 0.322
  MetS only 28 0.49 3.56 (2.25–5.64) < 0.001 3.15 (1.98–4.99) < 0.001 2.64 (1.65–4.23) < 0.001
  Both MAFLD and MetS 41 0.60 5.63 (3.78–8.39) < 0.001 4.39 (2.91–6.61) < 0.001 3.08 (1.97–4.82) < 0.001
CVD  Men Total 2277 1.23       
  Neither MAFLD nor MetS 1170 0.97 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  MAFLD only 590 1.45 1.43 (1.30–1.58) < 0.001 1.40 (1.26–1.54) < 0.001 1.36 (1.23–1.50) < 0.001
  MetS only 31 2.79 1.80 (1.26–2.58) 0.001 1.81 (1.27–2.59) 0.001 1.68 (1.18–2.41) 0.004
  Both MAFLD and MetS 486 2.13 1.91 (1.72–2.12) < 0.001 1.83 (1.64–2.04) < 0.001 1.65 (1.48–1.85) < 0.001
         Women Total 851 0.64       
  Neither MAFLD nor MetS 600 0.52 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  MAFLD only 43 0.92 1.53 (1.12–2.08) 0.008 1.43 (1.05–1.95) 0.025 1.40 (1.03–1.92) 0.033
  MetS only 90 1.59 1.78 (1.41–2.23) < 0.001 1.72 (1.37–2.17) < 0.001 1.66 (1.31–2.10) < 0.001
  Both MAFLD and MetS 118 1.74 2.30 (1.88–2.82) < 0.001 2.12 (1.72–2.61) < 0.001 1.96 (1.57–2.45) < 0.001
  1. Analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Model 1: Adjusted for age. Model 2: Adjusted for Model 1 plus current smoking, LDL-C and use of statin. Model 3: Adjusted for Model 2 plus presence of type 2 diabetes. Values in bold are statistically significant (p<0.05). CAD: coronary artery disease; CVD: cerebrovascular disease; MAFLD: metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease; MetS: metabolic syndrome; HR: hazard ratio; MAFLD only: MAFLD without MetS; MetS only: MetS without MAFLD. Rate* per 1000 person-years