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Table 2 CAD and CVD risk according to presence or absence of MAFLD or MetS in participants stratified according to with or without type 2 diabetes

From: Impact of metabolic syndrome and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease on cardiovascular risk by the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to sex

Group Events Rate* HR (95% confidence interval)
Model 1 Model 2
CAD/CVD CAD/CVD CAD P-value CVD P-value CAD P-value CVD P-value
Total   2252/3128 0.71/0.98         
  Neither MAFLD nor MetS 1002/1770 0.42/0.75 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
  MAFLD only 578/633 1.27/1.39 1.78 (1.61–1.98) < 0.001 1.45 (1.32–1.59) < 0.001 1.47 (1.33–1.63)  < 0.001 1.40 (1.28–1.54) < 0.001
  Mets only 51/121 0.75/1.79 2.23 (1.67–2.97) < 0.001 1.71 (1.42–2.06) < 0.001 2.02 (1.51–2.70)  < 0.001 1.67 (1.38–2.02) < 0.001
  Both MAFLD and MetS 621/604 2.10/2.04 2.98 (2.69–3.29) < 0.001 1.98 (1.80–2.17) < 0.001 2.33 (2.11–2.58)  < 0.001 1.89 (1.71–2.08) < 0.001
Without type 2 diabetes Total 1540/2581 0.52/0.87         
Neither MAFLD nor MetS 803/1606 0.35/0.70 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
MAFLD only 386/524 0.94/1.27 1.59 (1.41–1.80) < 0.001 1.45 (1.31–1.61) < 0.001 1.32 (1.17–1.50)  < 0.001 1.41 (1.28–1.57) < 0.001
MetS only 30/95 0.52/1.64 1.97 (1.36–2.85) < 0.001 1.69 (1.37–2.09) < 0.001 1.78 (1.22–2.58) 0.003 1.66 (1.34–2.06) < 0.001
Both MAFLD and MetS 321/356 1.51/1.68 2.64 (2.32–3.00) < 0.001 1.80 (1.60–2.02) < 0.001 2.10 (1.84–2.39)  < 0.001 1.73 (1.54–1.95) < 0.001
With type 2 diabetes Total 712/547 3.54/2.71         
Neither MAFLD nor MetS 199/164 3.01/2.47 1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)   1.00 (reference)  
MAFLD only 192/109 4.52/2.55 1.46 (1.20–1.79) < 0.001 1.10 (0.86–1.41) 0.430 1.29 (1.06–1.58) 0.013 1.08 (0.84–1.38) 0.547
MetS only 21/26 2.20/2.72 1.28 (0.81–2.04) 0.294 1.23 (0.80–1.90) 0.355 1.34 (0.84–2.13) 0.224 1.24 (0.80–1.92) 0.334
Both MAFLD and MetS 300/248 3.61/2.98 1.38 (1.15–1.66) < 0.001 1.45 (1.19–1.77) < 0.001 1.22 (1.02–1.47) 0.034 1.44 (1.18–1.76) < 0.001
  1. Analysis was performed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Values in bold are statistically significant (p < 0.05).
  2. Model 1: Adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: Adjusted for Model 1 plus current smoking, LDL-C and use of statin
  3. CAD: coronary artery disease; CVD: cerebrovascular disease; MAFLD: metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease; MetS: metabolic syndrome; HR: hazard ratio; MAFLD only: MAFLD without MetS; MetS only: MetS without MAFLD. Rate* per 1000 person-years