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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to the presence or absence of MAFLD or MetS

From: Impact of metabolic syndrome and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease on cardiovascular risk by the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes and according to sex

Characteristics MAFLD (−), MetS (−)
n = 421,922
MAFLD (+), MetS (−)
n = 82,033
MAFLD (−), MetS (+)
n = 12,457
MAFLD (+), MetS (+)
n = 54,014
P value
Sex (men) 217,312 (51.5) 73,484 (89.6) 2103 (16.9) 41,502 (76.8) < 0.001
Age (years) 44 (40–51) 46 (41–52) 52 (46–59) 48 (42–55) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 21.3 (19.6–23.0) 25.5 (24.1–27.3) 24.2 (22.7–25.7) 28.2 (26.4–30.5) < 0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 77.2 (72.0–82.0) 88.0 (85.0–93.0) 85.8 (82.5–90.0) 95.5 (92.0–100.6) < 0.001
Current smoking 95,821 (22.7) 30,973 (37.8) 1467 (11.8) 18,514 (34.3) < 0.001
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 35 (33–37) 36 (33–38) 39 (37–42) 39 (36–45) < 0.001
Type 2 diabetes 12,031 (2.9) 7686 (9.4) 1825 (14.7) 15,255 (28.2) < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 114 (105–124) 124 (116–132) 132 (122–140) 132 (123–141)   0.001
DBP (mmHg) 70 (64–78) 79 (72–85) 81 (73–88) 84 (77–90) < 0.001
Pulse pressure (mmHg) 43 (38–50) 45 (40–51) 51 (43–59) 48 (41–56) < 0.001
Hypertension 43,123 (10.2) 20,429 (24.9) 6039 (48.5) 29,051 (53.8) < 0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 1.0 (0.8–1.5) 1.9 (1.4–2.6) < 0.001
HDL-C (mmo/l) 1.7 (1.4–2.0) 1.3 (1.2–1.6) 1.5 (1.2–1.8) 1.2 (1.1–1.5) < 0.001
LDL-C (mmol/l) 3.0 (2.5–3.5) 3.4 (2.9–4.0) 3.3 (2.8–3.9) 3.4 (2.9–4.0) < 0.001
Use of statins 11,068 (2.6) 5008 (6.1) 1623 (13.0) 7003 (13.0) < 0.001
AST (IU/l) 19 (16–22) 24 (20–29) 19 (16–22) 25 (20–33) < 0.001
ALT (IU/l) 16 (12–21) 29 (21–42) 17 (13–22) 33 (23–50) < 0.001
γ-GPT (IU/) 20 (14–30) 53 (35–86) 19 (15–26) 48 (32–77) < 0.001
Fatty liver index* 8.42 (3.83–17.86) 52.84 (43.95–65.04) 23.82 (15.87–30.69) 72.65 (58.05–85.29) < 0.001
Visceral adiposity index** 0.72 (0.50–1.06) 1.61 (1.13–2.37) 1.28 (0.83–2.04) 2.22 (1.50–3.25) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as median (interquartile range), n (%). Analyses were performed by the Kruskal–Wallis test or Pearson’s chi-square test across groups
  2. MAFLD: metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease; MetS: metabolic syndrome; BMI: mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; gamma-glutamyl transferase: γ-GTP; WC: waist circumference
  3. *Fatty liver index: (e 0.953*loge (TG) + 0.139*BMI + 0.718*loge (γ−GTP) + 0.053*WC − 15.745)/(1 + e 0.953*loge(TG) + 0.139*BMI + 0.718*loge (γ−GTP) + 0.053*WC − 15.745) * 100
  4. **Visceral adiposity index: Women; [WC/(36.58 + (1.89 × BMI))] × [TG/0.81] × [1.52/HDL-C], Men; [WC/(39.68 + (1.88 × BMI))] × [TG/1.03] × [1.31/HDL-C] WC: waist circumference. TG: triglycerides