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Table 2 Targets for the control of glycemia

From: Cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: progress toward personalized management

Parameter Target Population Guideline References
Glycemia HbA1c Consistent with current ADA guideline AHA [39]
 < 6% Pregnancy patients without significant hypoglycemia ADA [38]
 < 6.5% Children and adolescents patients with a short duration of DM, lesser degrees of β-cell dysfunction and no evidence of CVD
 < 7% Nonpregnant patients without significant hypoglycemia
 < 8% Patients with limited life expectancy or where the harms of treatment are greater than the benefits
 < 7% Patients with developing microvascular complications ESC/EASD [40]
6.0–6.5% Younger patients with a short duration of DM and no evidence of CVD
 < 8% or ≤ 9% Elderly patients with longstanding
DM and limited life expectancy, and frailty with multiple comorbidities
 < 7% Older/frail adults ESC [41]
 ≤ 6.5% In early diagnosis, not frail and without established ASCVD
  1. DM diabetes Mellitus, CVD cardiovascular disease, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, AHA American Heart Association, ADA American Diabetes Association, ESC European Society of Cardiology, EASD European Association for the Study of Diabetes