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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of participants by phenotypic clusters in the Jackson Heart Study

From: Patients phenotypes and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the Jackson Heart Study

Dependent Cluster 1 (n = 260) Cluster 2 (n = 150) Cluster 3 (n = 119) P value
Clinical characteristics     
 Age, years 59.20 ± 0.64 60.58 ± 0.85 62.71 ± 0.953 0.0003
 Women, n (%) 188 (72.3) 105(70.0) 67 (56.3) 0.0068
 Body mass index, kg/m2 35.68 ± 0.44 33.96 ± 0.58 32.48 ± 0.66†‡ 0.0002
 Obesity, n (%) 193 (74.2) 102 (68.0) 72 (60.5) 0.016
 Current smokers, n (%) 21 (8.1) 20 (13.3) 13 (10.9) 0.23
 Hypertension, n (%) 197 (75.8) 116 (77.3) 101 (84.9) 0.12
Group, n (%)     
 Isolated T2DM 11 (27.5) 19 (47.5) 10 (25.0) 0.037
 T2DM + Obesity 32 (43.8) 33 (45.2) 10 (11.0)  
 T2DM + HTN 48 (40.0) 38 (31.8) 34 (28.3)  
 T2DM + Obesity + HTN 119 (41.2) 118 (40.8) 55 (18.0)  
Hemodynamics     
 Heart rate, bpm 69.35 ± 0.68 66.36 ± 0.89 67.18 ± 1.00 0.018
 Systolic BP, mmHg 128.30 ± 1.10 129.63 ± 1.34 137.34 ± 1.50 < 0.0001
 Diastolic BP, mmHg 74.61 ± 0.52 73.87 ± 0.69 75.02 ± 0.77 0.51
Biochemistry     
 HbA1C, % 7.67 ± 0.09 7.41 ± 0.12 7.27 ± 0.14 0.048
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 49.80 ± 0.85 50.38 ± 1.12 51.02 ± 1.26 0.72
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 126.76 ± 2.28 117.42 ± 3.00 123.20 ± 3.37 0.048
 Triglycerides, mg/dL 124.05 ± 3.84 120.05 ± 5.06 114.75 ± 5.68 0.39
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 94.51 ± 1.44 91.64 ± 1.89 87.51 ± 2.12 0.019
 BNP, pg/dL 11.86 ± 1.82 17.68 ± 2.40 25.55 ± 2.70 0.0001
 High sensitivity troponin I, pg/dL 5.58 ± 1.64 8.91 ± 2.15 14.30 ± 2.42* 0.012
Medications, n (%)     
 Metformin 42 (16.2) 25 (16.7) 18 (15.1) 0.94
 Insulin 36 (13.8) 15 (10.0) 19 (16.0) 0.33
 ACE inhibitors 29 (11.2) 17 (11.3) 10 (8.4) 0.67
 Other diabetes medications 72 (27.7) 54 (36.0) 42 (35.3) 0.14
 Statins therapy 119 (46.8) 71 (48.0) 58 (50.0) 0.85
  1. p < 0.05 compared with cluster 1; p < 0.05 compared with cluster 2; Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.05/4 = 0.0125
  2. Values are reported as mean ± SD for continuous traits and n (%) for dichotomous traits. ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme, BNP: brain natriuretic peptide, BP: blood pressure, eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL: high-density lipoprotein, HTN: hypertension, LDL: low-density lipoprotein, T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus