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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of participants by phenotypic clusters in the Jackson Heart Study

From: Patients phenotypes and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes: the Jackson Heart Study

Dependent

Cluster 1 (n = 260)

Cluster 2 (n = 150)

Cluster 3 (n = 119)

P value

Clinical characteristics

    

 Age, years

59.20 ± 0.64

60.58 ± 0.85

62.71 ± 0.953

0.0003

 Women, n (%)

188 (72.3)

105(70.0)

67 (56.3)

0.0068

 Body mass index, kg/m2

35.68 ± 0.44

33.96 ± 0.58

32.48 ± 0.66†‡

0.0002

 Obesity, n (%)

193 (74.2)

102 (68.0)

72 (60.5)

0.016

 Current smokers, n (%)

21 (8.1)

20 (13.3)

13 (10.9)

0.23

 Hypertension, n (%)

197 (75.8)

116 (77.3)

101 (84.9)

0.12

Group, n (%)

    

 Isolated T2DM

11 (27.5)

19 (47.5)

10 (25.0)

0.037

 T2DM + Obesity

32 (43.8)

33 (45.2)

10 (11.0)

 

 T2DM + HTN

48 (40.0)

38 (31.8)

34 (28.3)

 

 T2DM + Obesity + HTN

119 (41.2)

118 (40.8)

55 (18.0)

 

Hemodynamics

    

 Heart rate, bpm

69.35 ± 0.68

66.36 ± 0.89

67.18 ± 1.00

0.018

 Systolic BP, mmHg

128.30 ± 1.10

129.63 ± 1.34

137.34 ± 1.50

< 0.0001

 Diastolic BP, mmHg

74.61 ± 0.52

73.87 ± 0.69

75.02 ± 0.77

0.51

Biochemistry

    

 HbA1C, %

7.67 ± 0.09

7.41 ± 0.12

7.27 ± 0.14

0.048

 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL

49.80 ± 0.85

50.38 ± 1.12

51.02 ± 1.26

0.72

 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL

126.76 ± 2.28

117.42 ± 3.00

123.20 ± 3.37

0.048

 Triglycerides, mg/dL

124.05 ± 3.84

120.05 ± 5.06

114.75 ± 5.68

0.39

 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2

94.51 ± 1.44

91.64 ± 1.89

87.51 ± 2.12

0.019

 BNP, pg/dL

11.86 ± 1.82

17.68 ± 2.40

25.55 ± 2.70

0.0001

 High sensitivity troponin I, pg/dL

5.58 ± 1.64

8.91 ± 2.15

14.30 ± 2.42*

0.012

Medications, n (%)

    

 Metformin

42 (16.2)

25 (16.7)

18 (15.1)

0.94

 Insulin

36 (13.8)

15 (10.0)

19 (16.0)

0.33

 ACE inhibitors

29 (11.2)

17 (11.3)

10 (8.4)

0.67

 Other diabetes medications

72 (27.7)

54 (36.0)

42 (35.3)

0.14

 Statins therapy

119 (46.8)

71 (48.0)

58 (50.0)

0.85

  1. p < 0.05 compared with cluster 1; p < 0.05 compared with cluster 2; Bonferroni corrected p-value = 0.05/4 = 0.0125
  2. Values are reported as mean ± SD for continuous traits and n (%) for dichotomous traits. ACE: angiotensin converting enzyme, BNP: brain natriuretic peptide, BP: blood pressure, eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL: high-density lipoprotein, HTN: hypertension, LDL: low-density lipoprotein, T2DM: type 2 diabetes mellitus