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Table 3 Measures of cardiovascular function

From: Mechanisms underlying the blood pressure lowering effects of dapagliflozin, exenatide, and their combination in people with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

  Dapagliflozin Exenatide Dapagliflozin + Exenatide
1.5 weeks 16 weeks 1.5 weeks 16 weeks 1.5 weeks 16 weeks
Hemodynamics
 Stroke volume (ml) − 3.6 ± 4.2 − 3.0 ± 4.5 − 5.6 ± 4.0 − 10.4 ± 4.2* − 6.0 ± 4.4 − 7.2 ± 4.4
 Cardiac output (l/min) − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.02 ± 0.3 − 0.04 ± 0.3 − 0.1 ± 0.3 − 0.2 ± 0.3 − 0.2 ± 0.3
 Systemic vascular resistance (dyn/s/cm) − 8.2 ± 83.1 − 86.4 ± 88.7 30.2 ± 79.2 − 25.4 ± 82.0 5.3 ± 86.1 − 44.0 ± 89.0
Arterial stiffness
 AIX@HR75 − 2.6 ± 2.7 2.3 ± 2.7 2.2 ± 2.6 2.3 ± 2.6 0.2 ± 2.8 3.9 ± 2.9
 Pulse pressure (mmHg) − 3.4 ± 2.1 0.3 ± 2.1 − 0.07 ± 2.0 − 1.0 ± 2.0 − 3.9 ± 2.2 0.5 ± 2.2
Autonomic function
 LF/HF ratio − 0.09 ± 0.6 − 1.1 ± 0.6 0.1 ± 0.5 − 0.3 ± 0.5 0.7 ± 0.6 − 0.4 ± 0.6
 SDNN (ms) − 2.3 ± 4.0 − 3.8 ± 3.9 − 2.5 ± 3.5 − 8.1 ± 3.6* − 9.6 ± 3.7* − 8.7 ± 4.0*
 RMSSD (ms) − 0.9 ± 4.5 − 0.9 ± 4.7 − 5.1 ± 4.2 − 8.4 ± 4.4 − 11.4 ± 4.6* − 10.7 ± 4.8*
Hematocrit, body water, urinary volume, glucose and sodium excretion
 Change in ePV (%) − 3.5 ± 1.5** − 1.3 ± 2.0 1.0 ± 1.5 2.5 ± 2.0 − 4.2 ± 1.7* − 3.9 ± 2.1*
 Hematocrit (%) 1.2 ± 0.8 − 0.01 ± 0.9 − 0.8 ± 0.8 − 2.4 ± 0.9** 2.0 ± 0.9* 1.3 ± 0.9
 Extracellular fluid (L) − 1.1 ± 0.4** − 0.6 ± 0.4 − 0.1 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 0.7 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.4
 Intracellular fluid (L) − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 0.7 ± 0.6 0.2 ± 0.5 − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 0.3 ± 0.6 − 0.2 ± 0.6
 Urine volume (l/24 h) 419.4 ± 220.6 244.1 ± 224.1 − 27.0 ± 216.3 − 429.6 ± 222.4 391.9 ± 231.5 − 61.8 ± 239.3
 Glucose excretion (mmol/24 h) 500.7 ± 4.7*** 455.7 ± 74.7*** − 7.0 ± 70.7 − 47.4 ± 71.9 313.0 ± 79.8*** 263.3 ± 82.5**
 Sodium excretion (mmol/24 h) 16.4 ± 24.9 20.4 ± 25.3 − 3.7 ± 23.7 − 27.7 ± 24.7 31.7 ± 26.0 − 12.7 ± 26.9
  1. Linear mixed models were used to compare baseline corrected treatment effects with placebo (mean ± SE)
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001 for differences in change during treatments compared with placebo
  3. ePV, estimated plasma volume was calculated with the Strauss formula