Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of participants by history of CVD and LLA at baseline

From: Differential prognostic burden of cardiovascular disease and lower-limb amputation on the risk of all-cause death in people with long-standing type 1 diabetes

  All participants History of CVD and/or LLA at baseline P
Absent CVD only LLA only Both CVD and LLA
N 1169 1038 49 (4.2) 62 (5.3) 20 (1.7)  
Cohort membership, n (%)        < 0.0001
SURGENE 337 (29) 330 (32) 5 (10) 2 (3) 0 (0)  
GENEDIAB 376 (32) 284 (27) 22 (45) 54 (87) 16 (80)  
GENESIS 456 (39) 424 (41) 22 (45) 6 (10) 4 (20)  
Male sex, n (%) 643 (55) 552 (53) 32 (65) 41 (66) 18 (90) 0.0009
Age (years) 40 ± 13 39 ± 12 52 ± 10a 50 ± 12a 51 ± 10a  < 0.0001
Age of diabetes onset (years) 15 (10, 23) 14 (10, 23) 19 (11, 29) 18 (12, 25) 16 (11, 24) 0.04
Duration of diabetes (years) 23 ± 11 22 ± 11 31 ± 9a 32 ± 9a 34 ± 7a  < 0.0001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24 ± 3 24 ± 3 25 ± 4 24 ± 4 24 ± 3 0.20
Tobacco smoking, n (%)        < 0.0001
Former 119 (10) 91 (9) 9 (18) 15 (24) 4 (20)  
Current 241 (21) 210 (20) 8 (16) 14 (23) 9 (45)  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 ± 19 131 ± 18 140 ± 18a 146 ± 22a 143 ± 13a  < 0.0001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76 ± 11 76 ± 11 78 ± 9 81 ± 10a 81 ± 8a 0.0001
HbA1c (%) 8.8 ± 1.8 8.8 ± 1.8 8.7 ± 1.1 9.2 ± 2.7 8.5 ± 1.5 0.33
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 72 ± 20 72 ± 20 71 ± 12 77 ± 29 70 ± 16  
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1 5.6 ± 1.4 5.6 ± 1.4 6.2 ± 1.4a 5.7 ± 1.4 6.3 ± 1.3a 0.04
eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 86 ± 30 89 ± 28 66 ± 31a 64 ± 32a 61 ± 34a  < 0.0001
Urinary albumin concentration (mg/l) 14 (6, 94) 13 (5, 77) 17 (6, 501) 91 (16, 457) 381 (36, 805)  < 0.0001
Diabetic kidney disease, n (%) 484 (41) 398 (38) 26 (53) 42 (68) 18 (90)  < 0.0001
Diabetic retinopathy stages, n (%)        < 0.0001
Non-proliferative 276 (24) 265 (26) 7 (14) 1 (2) 3 (15)  
Pre-proliferative 182 (16) 160 (15) 9 (18) 10 (16) 3 (15)  
Proliferative 503 (43) 405 (39) 33 (67) 51 (82) 14 (70)  
Peripheral diabetic neuropathy, n (%) 412 (35) 314 (30) 29 (59) 51 (82) 18 (90)  < 0.0001
Peripheral artery disease, n (%) 71 (8) 0 0 52 (88) 19 (100)  < 0.0001
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 469 (40) 371 (36) 39 (80) 42 (68) 17 (85)  < 0.0001
Lipid-lowering drugs, n (%) 69 (6) 52 (5) 9 (18) 4 (6) 4 (20) 0.0002
  1. Quantitative variables are presented as mean ± SD or as median (25th–75th percentiles) for those with skewed distribution (age of diabetes onset and urinary albumin concentration)
  2. Comparisons were performed using χ2, ANOVA or Kruskal–Wallis tests. Post-hoc test was performed following ANOVA to determine significantly different values compared to subjects without condition (a). P < 0.05 was considered as significant
  3. CVD cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction and/or stroke), LLA lower-limb amputation
  4. 1Data available for 664 participants