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Table 4 Effect of SGLT2 Inhibitors on safety events among patients with diabetic kidney disease

From: Association of SGLT2 inhibitors with cardiovascular, kidney, and safety outcomes among patients with diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis

Outcome No studies No events Sample size RR (95% CI) I2, % PHeterogeneity PEgger test
Male genital mycotic infections 2 98 4091 3.89 (1.42–10.62) 62.1 0.072 0.392
Female genital mycotic infections 2 53 2100 2.50 (1.32–4.72) 0.0 0.384 NA
Diabetic ketoacidosis 2 56 14,974 3.54 (0.82–15.39) 54.3 0.139 NA
Volume depletion 4 1016* 18,832 1.29 (1.13–1.48) 0.0 0.713 0.936
Amputations 4 248* 18,832 1.21 (0.85–1.72) 25.4 0.244 0.767
Bone fractures 4 475* 18,832 1.00 (0.84–1.20) 0.0 0.953 0.447
Urinary tract infections 4 1739* 18,832 1.04 (0.95–1.14) 0.0 0.781 0.339
Acute kidney injury 3 197* 8255 0.85 (0.66–1.11) 0.0 0.975 0.535
Hyperkalemia 3 359* 8255 0.82 (0.67–1.01) 0.0 0.692 0.601
  1. Bold values indicate statistically significant estimates
  2. *The number of events from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial were not reported and therefore not included in the table for the following outcomes: volume depletion, amputations, fractures, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and hyperkalemia. CI indicates confidence interval, EMPA‐REG OUTCOME Empagliflozin Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus Patients; I2, I-squared, RR relative risk, SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporter 2