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Table 4 Association of cardiovascular risk factor management with CVD events among participants with diabetes, as compared with participants without diabetes

From: Interaction between smoking and diabetes in relation to subsequent risk of cardiovascular events

Category Person-years Cases HR (95% CI)a
No diabetes 351,096 2134 1.00 [Ref.]
Diabetes
 Individual cardiovascular risk factor management
  Optimal fruits and vegetables intake 44,791 485 1.33 (1.20–1.47)
  Optimal physical activity 71,765 898 1.43 (1.32–1.55)
  HbA1c < 6.5% 35,669 391 1.27 (1.14–1.42)
  SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg 29,104 221 1.12 (0.97–1.28)
  LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dL 37,126 397 1.28 (1.15–1.43)
  No CKD 100,376 1154 1.39 (1.29–1.50)
 Overall cardiovascular risk factor management
  2 or fewer controlled risk factors 34,699 542 1.79 (1.62–1.97)
  3 controlled risk factors 34,582 428 1.50 (1.35–1.67)
  4 controlled risk factors 24,629 238 1.25 (1.09–1.43)
  5 or more controlled risk factors 10,720 80 1.02 (0.81–1.27)
  1. Number of participants included in the analysis of individual risk factor management: 96,981 without diabetes, 12,408 with diabetes and fruits and vegetables intake ≥ 4.5 cup/day, 19,921 with diabetes and physical activity ≥ 600 MET-min/week; 9,980 with diabetes and HbA1c < 6.5%, 8,052 with diabetes and SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg, 10,312 with diabetes and LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dL, and 28,032 with diabetes and no CKD. Number of participants included in the analysis of overall risk factor management: 96,981 without diabetes, 9,753 with diabetes and ≤ 2 controlled risk factors, 9,667 with diabetes and 3 controlled risk factors, 6,846 with diabetes and 4 controlled risk factors, and 2,934 with diabetes and ≥ 5 controlled risk factors
  2. aFor analysis of individual risk factor management: adjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), fruits and vegetables intake (< 4.5 cup/day, ≥ 4.5 cup/day; not for fruits and vegetables intake analysis), physical activity (active, insufficiently active, inactive; not for physical activity analysis), alcohol consumption, hypertension (yes, no; not for SBP/DBP analysis), dyslipidemia (yes, no; not for LDL cholesterol analysis), baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, active smoking (never smoker, former smoker, current smoker), and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood. For analysis of overall risk factor management: adjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), alcohol consumption, baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, active smoking (never, former, current smoking), and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood