Skip to main content

Table 3 Association of diabetes, elevated fasting glucose, elevated OGTT-2 h glucose, and elevated HbA1c with CVD events among current, former, and never smokers

From: Interaction between smoking and diabetes in relation to subsequent risk of cardiovascular events

Category No. of participants Person-years Cases HR (95% CI) P for interactionc
Adjusted for CVD risk factorsa Further adjusted for baseline BMI, and BMI change Further adjusted for passive smokingb
Diabetes        0.034
Current smokers        
 No diabetes 14,874 54,483 402 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
 Diabetes 4523 16,226 233 1.60 (1.35–1.89) 1.61 (1.36–1.91) 1.61 (1.36–1.91)
Former smokers       
 No diabetes 4136 15,002 128 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
 Diabetes 1913 6889 112 1.67 (1.28–2.16) 1.71 (1.31–2.22) 1.70 (1.31–2.22)
Never smokers       
 No diabetes 77,971 281,612 1604 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
 Diabetes 22,764 81,515 943 1.38 (1.27–1.50) 1.37 (1.26–1.49) 1.37 (1.26–1.49)
Elevated fasting glucose        0.11
 Current smokers        
  Fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL 16,722 61,110 484 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL 2653 9522 147 1.69 (1.40–2.05) 1.71 (1.41–2.07) 1.71 (1.41–2.07)
 Former smokers       
  Fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL 4931 17,868 172 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL 1110 3997 68 1.61 (1.21–2.15) 1.66 (1.24–2.22) 1.66 (1.24–2.22)
 Never smokers       
  Fasting glucose < 126 mg/dL 89,021 321,598 2011 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  Fasting glucose ≥ 126 mg/dL 11,624 41,208 532 1.47 (1.34–1.63) 1.46 (1.33–1.61) 1.46 (1.33–1.61)
Elevated OGTT-2 h glucose        0.28
 Current smokers        
  OGTT-2 h glucose < 200 mg/dL 16,273 59,462 464 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  OGTT-2 h glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL 3035 10,918 163 1.56 (1.30–1.88) 1.57 (1.31–1.90) 1.57 (1.31–1.90)
 Former smokers       
  OGTT-2 h glucose < 200 mg/dL 4697 16,999 160 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  OGTT-2 h glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL 1282 4646 75 1.44 (1.09–1.91) 1.45 (1.10–1.93) 1.45 (1.10–1.93)
 Never smokers       
  OGTT-2 h glucose < 200 mg/dL 85,342 307,942 1844 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  OGTT-2 h glucose ≥ 200 mg/dL 14,869 53,371 684 1.44 (1.32–1.58) 1.43 (1.31–1.57) 1.44 (1.31–1.58)
Elevated HbA1c        0.011
 Current smokers        
  HbA1c < 6.5% 16,402 59,910 467 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  HbA1c ≥ 6.5% 2955 10,652 167 1.69 (1.41–2.04) 1.72 (1.42–2.07) 1.72 (1.43–2.07)
 Former smokers       
  HbA1c < 6.5% 4800 17,404 159 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  HbA1c ≥ 6.5% 1237 4446 78 1.77 (1.34–2.34) 1.83 (1.38–2.43) 1.83 (1.38–2.43)
 Never smokers       
  HbA1c < 6.5% 85,759 309,451 1899 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
  HbA1c ≥ 6.5% 14,849 53,219 643 1.39 (1.27–1.52) 1.38 (1.25–1.51) 1.37 (1.25–1.51)
  1. 126,181 participants were included in the analysis. The numbers of missing values are 120 for fasting glucose, 683 for OGTT-2 h glucose, and 179 for HbA1c
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), fruits and vegetables intake (< 4.5 cup/day, ≥ 4.5 cup/day), physical activity (active, insufficiently active, inactive), alcohol consumption, hypertension (yes, no), and dyslipidemia (yes, no)
  3. bAdjusted for CVD risk factors as listed above, as well as baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood
  4. cInteractions of diabetes, elevated fasting glucose, elevated OGTT-2 h glucose, and elevated HbA1c with smoking status in relation to CVD events were adjusted for CVD risk factors as listed above, as well as baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood