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Table 2 Association of smoking with CVD events among participants with and without diabetes

From: Interaction between smoking and diabetes in relation to subsequent risk of cardiovascular events

Category No. of participants Person-years Cases HR (95% CI) P for interactionc
Adjusted for CVD risk factorsa Further adjusted for baseline BMI, and BMI change Further adjusted for passive smokingb
Diabetes        0.034
 Never smokers 22,764 81,515 943 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
 Former smokers 1913 6889 112 1.15 (0.92–1.43) 1.15 (0.92–1.43) 1.15 (0.93–1.43)
 Current smokers 4523 16,226 233 1.29 (1.08–1.54) 1.29 (1.08–1.53) 1.29 (1.08–1.54)
No diabetes       
 Never smokers 77,971 281,612 1604 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.] 1.00 [Ref.]
 Former smokers 4136 15,002 128 1.07 (0.88–1.30) 1.06 (0.88–1.30) 1.07 (0.88–1.30)
 Current smokers 14,874 54,483 402 1.23 (1.07–1.41) 1.24 (1.08–1.42) 1.24 (1.09–1.43)
  1. 126,181 participants were included in the analysis
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), fruits and vegetables intake (< 4.5 cup/day, ≥ 4.5 cup/day), physical activity (active, insufficiently active, inactive), alcohol consumption, hypertension (yes, no), and dyslipidemia (yes, no)
  3. bAdjusted for CVD risk factors as listed above, as well as baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood
  4. cInteraction of diabetes with smoking status in relation to CVD events was adjusted for CVD risk factors as listed above, as well as baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood