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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants according to smoking status

From: Interaction between smoking and diabetes in relation to subsequent risk of cardiovascular events

Characteristic Current smokers Former smokers Never smokers
Quit for < 4 years Quit for 4- < 8 years Quit for ≥  8 years
Number of participants 19,397 2405 848 2796 100,735
Age, year 55.8 (8.6) 58.2 (8.9) 59.4 (8.5) 60.7 (9.1) 56.4 (9.0)
Men, n (%) 18,230 (94.0) 2247 (93.4) 800 (94.3) 2684 (96.0) 19,609 (19.5)
High school or further education, n (%) 6761 (34.9) 953 (39.6) 372 (43.9) 1237 (44.2) 36,787 (36.5)
Family history of diabetes, n (%) 2310 (11.9) 305 (12.7) 104 (12.3) 370 (13.2) 13,292 (13.2)
Family history of CVD, n (%) 2575 (13.3) 332 (13.8) 137 (16.2) 416 (14.9) 17,491 (17.4)
BMI, kg/m2 24.4 (3.5) 25.0 (3.5) 25.3 (3.5) 25.3 (3.6) 24.6 (3.6)
Passive smoking exposure in childhood, n (%) 11,708 (60.4) 1450 (60.3) 491 (57.9) 1642 (58.7) 45,019 (44.7)
Passive smoking exposure in adulthood, n (%) 7536 (38.9) 770 (32.0) 249 (29.4) 886 (31.7) 36,188 (35.9)
Fruits and vegetables intake, cup/day 3.9 (3.6) 4.2 (4.0) 4.7 (6.5) 5.2 (26.9) 4.2 (5.6)
Physical activity, n (%)
 Active 11,474 (59.2) 1609 (66.9) 607 (71.6) 2078 (74.3) 65,414 (64.9)
 Insufficiently active 7425 (38.3) 734 (30.5) 224 (26.4) 671 (24.0) 32,590 (32.4)
 Inactive 498 (2.6) 62 (2.6) 17 (2.0) 47 (1.7) 2731 (2.7)
 Alcohol consumption, g/day 24.8 (45.1) 21.3 (44.6) 20.1 (40.7) 18.3 (36.2) 2.3 (13.7)
Glucose profile
 Fasting glucose, mg/dL 108.6 (32.4) 112.0 (33.2) 114.4 (33.0) 113.3 (34.2) 106.6 (28.6)
 OGTT-2 h glucose, mg/dL 143.9 (73.9) 154.7 (76.5) 164.5 (77.3) 160.0 (78.6) 147.8 (66.8)
 HbA1c, % 6.0 (1.1) 6.1 (1.2) 6.2 (1.2) 6.2 (1.1) 6.0 (1.0)
Blood pressure
 SBP, mm Hg 132.9 (20.0) 136.3 (20.3) 136.9 (18.7) 136.7 (20.0) 132.6 (20.9)
 DBP, mm Hg 79.8 (11.5) 80.7 (11.3) 81.6 (11.2) 80.8 (11.2) 78.0 (11.0)
Lipid profile
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 108.1 (32.3) 108.4 (33.1) 105.7 (33.3) 108.5 (33.6) 112.2 (34.2)
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 49.3 (15.0) 48.3 (14.1) 47.5 (14.7) 47.6 (13.1) 52.5 (13.8)
 Triglycerides, mg/dL 158.6 (132.8) 154.4 (120.5) 157.9 (130.4) 148.5 (109.5) 142.0 (103.4)
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 187.3 (42.2) 186.4 (44.0) 182.6 (43.4) 185.0 (44.1) 193.5 (44.2)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 95.6 (13.2) 92.7 (14.3) 91.1 (14.9) 89.8 (15.2) 93.6 (13.4)
  1. Values are mean (SD) for continuous variables and number (proportion) for categorical variables. Overall, the numbers of missing values are 120 for fasting glucose, 683 for OGTT-2 h glucose, 179 for HbA1c, 666 for SBP, 673 for DBP, 276 for LDL cholesterol, 278 for HDL cholesterol, 380 for triglycerides, 259 for total cholesterol, and 297 for eGFR. Percentages may not sum to 100% due to rounding