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Fig. 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 2

From: Interaction between smoking and diabetes in relation to subsequent risk of cardiovascular events

Fig. 2

Association of cardiovascular risk factor management with CVD events among participants with diabetes according to smoking status, as compared with participants without diabetes. A. Number of participants included in the analysis: 96,981 without diabetes, 12,408 with diabetes and fruits and vegetables intake ≥ 4.5 cup/day, 19,921 with diabetes and physical activity ≥ 600 MET-min/week; 9980 with diabetes and HbA1c < 6.5%, 8052 with diabetes and SBP/DBP < 130/80 mmHg, 10,312 with diabetes and LDL cholesterol < 100 mg/dL, and 28,032 with diabetes and no CKD. HRs (95% CIs) were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), fruits and vegetables intake (< 4.5 cup/day, ≥ 4.5 cup/day; not for fruits and vegetables intake analysis), physical activity (active, insufficiently active, inactive; not for physical activity analysis), alcohol consumption, hypertension (yes, no; not for SBP/DBP analysis), dyslipidemia (yes, no; not for LDL cholesterol analysis), baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood. B. Number of participants included in the analysis: 96,981 without diabetes, 9753 with diabetes and ≤ 2 controlled risk factors, 9667 with diabetes and 3 controlled risk factors, 6,846 with diabetes and 4 controlled risk factors, and 2934 with diabetes and ≥ 5 controlled risk factors. HRs (95% CIs) were adjusted for age, sex, education attainment (less than high school, high school or further education), family history of diabetes (yes, no), family history of CVD (yes, no), alcohol consumption, baseline BMI, BMI change during follow-up, and passive smoking exposure in childhood and adulthood.

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