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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population by quartiles of HbA1c variability

From: HbA1c variability predicts cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes regardless of being at glycemic target

Characteristic Quartiles of HbA1c variability p-value
I II III IV  
No. of patients 25,143 25,442 25,426 25,522 NS
SD of HbA1c 1.9 (1.4–2.3) 3.6 (3.1–4.2) 6.5 (5.6–7.6) 14.3 (11.1–19.7)  < 0.0001
Gender (% males) 47.7 53.5 57.8 63.4  < 0.0001
Age (years) 68.0 (61.0–74.0) 66.0 (58.0–72.0) 63.0 (55.0–71.0) 60.0 (52.0–68.0)  < 0.0001
Smoking % 13.2 14.3 16.0 18.9  < 0.0001
BMI kg/m2 28.7 (25.6–32.3) 29.1 (26.1–32.8) 29.6 (26.4–33.3) 29.8 (26.5–33.8)  < 0.0001
Duration of diabetes %      
 ≤ 2 years 17.2 14.8 13.4 20.5  < 0.0001
 2.1–5 years 57.3 54.3 50.0 56.3  
 5.1–10 years 14.5 16.0 17.4 12.0  
 > 10 years 11.0 15.0 19.2 11.2  
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 45.0 (41.0–49.0) 49.0 (44.0–54.0) 54.0 (47.0–61.0) 54.0 (46.0–67.0) NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 135 (125–142) 135 (125–142) 135 (125–142) 133 (125–142) NS
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 (70–82) 80 (70–83) 80 (70–84) 80 (74–85) NS
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.7 (4.1–5.4) 4.6 (4.0–5.3) 4.6 (4.0–5.3) 4.7 (4.0–5.4) NS
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 (1.1–1.6) 1.2 (1.0–1.5) 1.2 (1.0–1.4) 1.1 (1.0–1.4) NS
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.6 (2.1–3.3) 2.6 (2.0–3.2) 2.6 (2.0–3.2) 2.6 (2.0–3.3) NS
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.4 (1.0–1.9) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 1.6 (1.2–2.3) 1.7 (1.2–2.4) NS
Albuminuria %       < 0.0001
 No albuminuria 79.8 77.9 74.9 73.9  
 Microalbuminuria 11.4 13.4 15.2 16.0  
 Macroalbuminuria 2.4 3.3 4.2 4.2  
 Not available 6.3 5.5 5.7 6.0  
eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2) 79.9 (67.6–93.6) 83.0 (69.6–97.3) 85.6 (71.1–101.0) 89.4 (74.8–105.1)  < 0.0001
Diabetes retinopathy % 12.4% 15.1% 18.8% 18.4%  < 0.0001
Diabetes treatment %       < 0.0001
Lifestyle only 31.8 15.5 8.7 7.5  
Oral agent 60.7 69.6 65.2 61.0  
Insulin 3.2 6.4 9.9 10.8  
Insulin + oral agents 4.3 8.6 16.3 20.6  
Subjects taking GLP-1RA 7 7 9 6 NS
Subjects taking SGLT2-I 1 4 3 8 NS
Antihypertensive medication % 74.7 71.7 69.4 62.6  < 0.0001
Statin medication % 59.5 60.1 58.2 54.4  < 0.0001
Aspirin % 22.2 22.2 22.6 16.4  < 0.0001