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Table 1 Baseline characteristics stratified by physical activity groups and diabetes status

From: Association between exercise frequency with renal and cardiovascular outcomes in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals at high cardiovascular risk

   Physical activity Total p-value
   Mainly sedentary Once/week 2–4times/week 5–6times/week Everyday   
Number of patients N 7229 3604 7156 23,89 10,934 31,312  
Baseline SBP Mean (SD) 141.8 (17.2) 141.9 (17.2) 141.7 (17.3) 141.0 (17.2) 141.5 (17.3) 141.6 (17.3) 0.23
Baseline DBP Mean (SD) 82.0 (10.5) 82.4 (10.1) 82.3 (10.3) 82.0 (10.3) 81.8 (10.3) 82.0 (10.3) 0.0059
Baseline RHR Mean (SD) 70.2 (11.9) 69.2 (12.3) 67.3 (12.0) 66.1 (12.5) 67.2 (12.1) 68.1 (12.1) <0.0001
Baseline eGFR (MDRD) Mean (SD) 71.4 (21.9) 73.5 (20.5) 74.2 (19.1) 74.6 (18.6) 74.1 (19.4) 73.4 (20.0) <0.0001
Baseline eGFR (CKD-EPI) Mean (SD) 68.3 (18.6) 70.8 (17.9) 71.6 (16.6) 72.0 (16.5) 71.3 (16.7) 70.7 (17.3) <0.0001
Age Mean (SD) 67.3 (7.7) 66.2 (7.4) 66.0 (6.9) 66.2 (6.9) 66.5 (7.0) 66.5 (7.2) <0.0001
Age group         <0.0001
 <65 years N (%) 2823 (39.1%) 1615 (44.8%) 3215 (44.9%) 1023 (42.8%) 4599 (42.1%) 13,275 (42.4%)  
 ≥ 65–< 75 years N (%) 3023 (41.8%) 1454 (40.3%) 3029 (42.3%) 1058 (44.3%) 4768 (43.6%) 13,332 (42.6%)  
 ≥ 75 years N (%) 1383 (19.1%) 535 (14.8%) 912 (12.7%) 308 (12.9%) 1567 (14.3%) 4705 (15.0%)  
Sex         <0.0001
 Male N (%) 4320 (59.8%) 2496 (69.3%) 5176 (72.3%) 1807 (75.6%) 8205 (75.0%) 22,004 (70.3%)  
 Female N (%) 2909 (40.2%) 1108 (30.7%) 1980 (27.7%) 582 (24.4%) 2729 (25.0%) 9308 (29.7%)  
Body mass index [kg/m2] Mean (SD) 28.9 (5.5) 28.5 (5.0) 28.4 (4.6) 28.0 (4.3) 27.5 (4.3) 28.2 (4.8) <0.0001
Obese N (%) 2749 (38.0%) 1260 (35.0%) 2405 (33.6%) 693 (29.0%) 3162 (28.9%) 10,269 (32.8%) <0.0001
Alcohol consumption N (%) 2260 (31.3%) 1270 (35.2%) 3164 (44.2%) 1084 (45.4%) 4324 (39.5%) 12,102 (38.6%) <0.0001
Tobaccouse, decode         <0.0001
 Current N (%) 1038 (14.4%) 533 (14.8%) 836 (11.7%) 212 (8.9%) 1162 (10.6%) 3781 (12.1%)  
 Formerly N (%) 3066 (42.4%) 1693 (47.0%) 3794 (53.0%) 1329 (55.6%) 5858 (53.6%) 15,740 (50.3%)  
Never N (%) 3125 (43.2%) 1378 (38.2%) 2526 (35.3%) 848 (35.5%) 3914 (35.8%) 11,791 (37.7%)  
History of hypertension N (%) 5507 (76.2%) 2566 (71.2%) 4926 (68.8%) 1583 (66.3%) 7401 (67.7%) 21,983 (70.2%) <0.0001
Diabetes N (%) 3124 (43.2%) 1429 (39.7%) 2539 (35.5%) 774 (32.4%) 3782 (34.6%) 11,648 (37.2%) <0.0001
Myocardial infarction N (%) 3173 (43.9%) 1756 (48.7%) 3575 (50.0%) 1273 (53.3%) 5419 (49.6%) 15,196 (48.5%) <0.0001
Stroke/TIA N (%) 1885 (26.1%) 667 (18.5%) 1277 (17.8%) 394 (16.5%) 2359 (21.6%) 6582 (21.0%) <0.0001
Medication         
 Aspirin N (%) 5094 (70.5%) 2659 (73.8%) 5521 (77.2%) 1903 (79.7%) 8494 (77.7%) 23,671 (75.6%) <0.0001
 Beta-blockers N (%) 3770 (52.2%) 2111 (58.6%) 4292 (60.0%) 1482 (62.0%) 6262 (57.3%) 17,917 (57.2%) <0.0001
 Diuretics N (%) 2617 (36.2%) 1112 (30.9%) 1956 (27.3%) 612 (25.6%) 2751 (25.2%) 9048 (28.9%) <0.0001
 Nitrates N (%) 2234 (30.9%) 1144 (31.7%) 1944 (27.2%) 708 (29.6%) 3455 (31.6%) 9485 (30.3%) <0.0001
 Other Ca2+ channel blockers N (%) 1952 (27.0%) 866 (24.0%) 1694 (23.7%) 538 (22.5%) 2819 (25.8%) 7869 (25.1%) <0.0001
 Oral hypoglycemic agents N (%) 2150 (29.7%) 928 (25.7%) 1665 (23.3%) 525 (22.0%) 2523 (23.1%) 7791 (24.9%) <0.0001
 Insulin N (%) 879 (12.2%) 416 (11.5%) 674 (9.4%) 158 (6.6%) 921 (8.4%) 3048 (9.7%) <0.0001
 Statins N (%) 3794 (52.5%) 2083 (57.8%) 4671 (65.3%) 1582 (66.2%) 6781 (62.0%) 18,911 (60.4%) <0.0001
Number of antihypertensives         <0.0001
 0 N (%) 1669 (23.1%) 801 (22.2%) 1652 (23.1%) 526 (22.0%) 2591 (23.7%) 7239 (23.1%)  
 1 N (%) 3249 (44.9%) 1699 (47.1%) 3442 (48.1%) 1196 (50.1%) 5328 (48.7%) 14,914 (47.6%)  
 2 N (%) 1843 (25.5%) 922 (25.6%) 1686 (23.6%) 565 (23.7%) 2541 (23.2%) 7557 (24.1%)  
 3 N (%) 468 (6.5%) 182 (5.0%) 376 (5.3%) 102 (4.3%) 474 (4.3%) 1602 (5.1%)  
No diabetes—physical activity Diabetes—physical activity p-value No diabetes vs diabetes
≤Once/week 2-6times/week Everyday Total p-value ≤Once/week 2-6times/week Everyday Total p-value
6280 6232 7152 19664   4553 3313 3782 11648   
140.8 (17.2) 140.3 (17.4) 140.6 (17.6) 140.6 (17.4) 0.20 143.2 (17.0) 143.8 (16.9) 143.4 (16.6) 143.4 (16.9) 0.27 <0.0001
82.4 (10.3) 82.2 (10.4) 82.0 (10.4) 82.2 (10.4) 0.17 81.8 (10.4) 82.3 (10.2) 81.4 (10.1) 81.8 (10.3) 0.0005 0.0017
68.2 (11.8) 65.5 (12.0) 65.6 (11.7) 66.4 (11.9) <0.0001 72.1 (12.1) 69.8 (12.0) 70.2 (12.1) 70.8 (12.1) <0.0001 <0.0001
72.7 (20.6) 74.6 (18.0) 74.0 (18.2) 73.7 (18.9) <0.0001 71.3 (22.6) 73.8 (20.7) 74.2 (21.5) 72.9 (21.7) <0.0001 0.0005
69.7 (17.6) 72.1 (15.9) 71.3 (16.0) 71.0 (16.5) <0.0001 68.5 (19.5) 71.1 (17.8) 71.2 (18.1) 70.1 (18.6) <0.0001 <0.0001
67.3 (7.9) 66.1 (7.1) 66.7 (7.2) 66.7 (7.4) <0.0001 66.4 (7.2) 65.9 (6.6) 66.1 (6.8) 66.2 (6.9) 0.0020 <0.0001
     <0.0001      <0.0001 <0.0001
2515 (40.0%) 2758 (44.3%) 2954 (41.3%) 8227 (41.8%)   1923 (42.2%) 1480 (44.7%) 1645 (43.5%) 5048 (43.3%)   
2524 (40.2%) 2625 (42.1%) 3097 (43.3%) 8246 (41.9%)   1953 (42.9%) 1462 (44.1%) 1671 (44.2%) 5086 (43.7%)   
1241 (19.8%) 849 (13.6%) 1101 (15.4%) 3191 (16.2%)   677 (14.9%) 371 (11.2%) 466 (12.3%) 1514 (13.0%)   
     <0.0001      <0.0001 <0.0001
4188 (66.7%) 4779 (76.7%) 5580 (78.0%) 14,547 (74.0%)   2628 (57.7%) 2204 (66.5%) 2625 (69.4%) 7457 (64.0%)   
2092 (33.3%) 1453 (23.3%) 1572 (22.0%) 5117 (26.0%)   1925 (42.3%) 1109 (33.5%) 1157 (30.6%) 4191 (36.0%)   
27.9 (4.8) 27.6 (4.1) 27.0 (3.9) 27.5 (4.3) <0.0001 30.0 (5.7) 29.4 (4.9) 28.4 (4.9) 29.3 (5.3) <0.0001 <0.0001
1877 (29.9%) 1677 (26.9%) 1704 (23.8%) 5258 (26.7%) <0.0001 2132 (46.8%) 1421 (42.9%) 1458 (38.6%) 5011 (43.0%) <0.0001 <0.0001
2333 (37.1%) 3091 (49.6%) 3198 (44.7%) 8622 (43.8%) <0.0001 1197 (26.3%) 1157 (34.9%) 1126 (29.8%) 3480 (29.9%) <0.0001 <0.0001
     <0.0001      <0.0001 <0.0001
1022 (16.3%) 719 (11.5%) 800 (11.2%) 2541 (12.9%)   549 (12.1%) 329 (9.9%) 362 (9.6%) 1240 (10.6%)   
2913 (46.4%) 3474 (55.7%) 3968 (55.5%) 10,355 (52.7%)   1846 (40.5%) 1649 (49.8%) 1890 (50.0%) 5385 (46.2%)   
2345 (37.3%) 2039 (32.7%) 2384 (33.3%) 6768 (34.4%)   2158 (47.4%) 1335 (40.3%) 1530 (40.5%) 5023 (43.1%)   
4337 (69.1%) 3872 (62.1%) 4457 (62.3%) 12,666 (64.4%) <0.0001 3736 (82.1%) 2637 (79.6%) 2944 (77.8%) 9317 (80.0%) <0.0001 <0.0001
NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
3303 (52.6%) 3538 (56.8%) 3958 (55.3%) 10,799 (54.9%) <0.0001 1626 (35.7%) 1310 (39.5%) 1461 (38.6%) 4397 (37.7%) 0.0010 <0.0001
1668 (26.6%) 1167 (18.7%) 1649 (23.1%) 4484 (22.8%) <0.0001 884 (19.4%) 504 (15.2%) 710 (18.8%) 2098 (18.0%) <0.0001 <0.0001
4726 (75.3%) 5142 (82.5%) 5822 (81.4%) 15,690 (79.8%) <0.0001 3027 (66.5%) 2282 (68.9%) 2672 (70.7%) 7981 (68.5%) 0.0002 <0.0001
3676 (58.5%) 3992 (64.1%) 4307 (60.2%) 11,975 (60.9%) <0.0001 2205 (48.4%) 1782 (53.8%) 1955 (51.7%) 5942 (51.0%) <0.0001 <0.0001
1867 (29.7%) 1398 (22.4%) 1540 (21.5%) 4805 (24.4%) <0.0001 1862 (40.9%) 1170 (35.3%) 1211 (32.0%) 4243 (36.4%) <0.0001 <0.0001
2017 (32.1%) 1775 (28.5%) 2316 (32.4%) 6108 (31.1%) <0.0001 1361 (29.9%) 877 (26.5%) 1139 (30.1%) 3377 (29.0%) 0.0008 0.0001
1485 (23.6%) 1298 (20.8%) 1681 (23.5%) 4464 (22.7%) 0.0001 1333 (29.3%) 934 (28.2%) 1138 (30.1%) 3405 (29.2%) 0.21 <0.0001
1 (0.0%) 3 (0.0%) 1 (0.0%) 5 (0.0%) NA 3077 (67.6%) 2187 (66.0%) 2522 (66.7%) 7786 (66.8%) 0.33 NA
NA NA NA NA NA 1295 (28.4%) 832 (25.1%) 921 (24.4%) 3048 (26.2%) <0.0001 NA
3593 (57.2%) 4306 (69.1%) 4717 (66.0%) 12,616 (64.2%) <0.0001 2284 (50.2%) 1947 (58.8%) 2064 (54.6%) 6295 (54.0%) <0.0001 <0.0001
     <0.0001      0.14 <0.0001
1397 (22.2%) 1403 (22.5%) 1648 (23.0%) 4448 (22.6%)   1073 (23.6%) 775 (23.4%) 943 (24.9%) 2791 (24.0%)   
3032 (48.3%) 3213 (51.6%) 3717 (52.0%) 9962 (50.7%)   1916 (42.1%) 1425 (43.0%) 1611 (42.6%) 4952 (42.5%)   
1557 (24.8%) 1373 (22.0%) 1550 (21.7%) 4480 (22.8%)   1208 (26.5%) 878 (26.5%) 991 (26.2%) 3077 (26.4%)   
294 (4.7%) 243 (3.9%) 237 (3.3%) 774 (3.9%)   356 (7.8%) 235 (7.1%) 237 (6.3%) 828 (7.1%)