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Table 1 Baseline Characteristics According to BMI Categories

From: Underweight is a major risk factor for atrial fibrillation in Asian people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Total
n = 64,339
Underweight
BMI < 18.5
n = 1862
Normal range
18.5 ≤ BMI < 24
n = 22,933
Overweight
24 ≤ BMI < 27
n = 19,713
Obesity class 1
27 ≤ BMI < 30
n = 11,875
Obesity class 2
30 ≤ BMI < 35
n = 6456
Obesity class 3
BMI ≥ 35
n = 1500
P-value
Age (years) 67.7 ± 9.9 71.6 ± 11.6 68.9 ± 10.1 67.6 ± 9.7 66.7 ± 9.6 65.1 ± 9.3 63.0 ± 8.6  < 0.001
 < 65 26,723 (41.6) 559 (30.0) 8443 (36.8) 8112 (41.2) 5352 (45.1) 3360 (52.0) 897 (59.8)  
 65–74 20,989 (32.6) 564 (30.3) 7596 (33.1) 6632 (33.6) 3826 (32.2) 1933 (29.9) 438 (29.2)  
 ≥ 75 16,627 (25.8) 739 (39.7) 6894 (30.1) 4969 (25.2) 2697 (22.7) 1163 (18.1) 165 (11.0)  
Male 33,930 (52.7) 813 (43.7) 11,486 (50.1) 11,241 (57.0) 6565 (55.2) 3199 (49.6) 626 (41.7)  < 0.001
Body height (cm) 160.8 ± 8.5 159.8 ± 8.3 160.6 ± 8.2 161.4 ± 8.4 161.0 ± 8.7 160.2 ± 8.9 158.8 ± 9.7  < 0.001
Body weight (kg) 65.9 ± 12.8 44.1 ± 5.4 56.8 ± 7.1 66.4 ± 7.3 73.6 ± 8.2 81.9 ± 9.6 96.6 ± 14.8  < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 4.2 17.2 ± 1.1 21.9 ± 1.4 25.4 ± 0.9 28.3 ± 0.8 31.8 ± 1.3 38.3 ± 6.1  < 0.001
Hypertension 42,088 (65.4) 946 (50.8) 13,244 (57.8) 13,079 (66.3) 8634 (72.7) 4939 (76.5) 1246 (83.1)  < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia 30,339 (47.2) 541 (29.1) 9795 (42.7) 9640 (48.9) 6075 (51.2) 3389 (52.5) 789 (66.7)  < 0.001
Gout 5831 (9.1) 93 (5.0) 1539 (6.7) 1861 (9.4) 1312 (11.0) 833 (12.9) 193 (12.9)  < 0.001
History of heart failure 61 (0.1) 5 (0.3) 19 (0.1) 16 (0.1) 9 (0.1) 11 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 0.049
VHD 569 (0.9) 22 (1.2) 212 (0.9) 182 (0.9) 100 (0.8) 45 (0.7) 8 (0.5) 0.182
COPD 4076 (6.3) 210 (11.3) 1406 (6.1) 1157 (5.9) 746 (6.3) 443 (6.9) 114 (7.6)  < 0.001
CAD 4163 (6.4) 64 (3.4) 1080 (4.7) 1360 (6.9) 977 (8.2) 555 (8.6) 127 (8.5)  < 0.001
CKD 8460 (13.1) 212 (11.4) 2950 (12.8) 2598 (13.2) 1599 (13.5) 887 (13.7) 214 (14.3) 0.044
PAOD 695 (1.1) 18 (1.0) 263 (1.1) 204 (1.0) 138 (1.2) 63 (1.0) 9 (0.6) 0.288
Cancer 14,112 (21.9) 547 (29.4) 5484 (23.9) 4224 (21.4) 2434 (20.5) 1156 (17.9) 267 (17.8)  < 0.001
History of TIA/old stroke 692 (1.1) 31 (1.6) 240 (1.0) 201 (1.0) 144 (1.2) 65 (1.0) 11 (0.7) 0.054
Baseline FG (mg/dL) 136.8 ± 53.4 136.0 ± 62.9 136.8 ± 59.4 136.1 ± 49.1 136.7 ± 46.6 138.7 ± 50.8 141.2 ± 62.7 0.006
Baseline HbA1C (%) 7.2 ± 1.5 7.2 ± 1.7 7.2 ± 1.5 7.2 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.5 7.3 ± 1.4  < 0.001
Baseline eGFR (mL/min /1.73 m2) 72.1 ± 32.9 64.9 ± 45.2 66.6 ± 32.2 72.0 ± 29.7 75.7 ± 31.0 82.3 ± 35.1 95.5 ± 43.0  < 0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc score 2.5 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.1  < 0.001
UCG         
 LA size (cm) 3.9 ± 0.7 3.4 ± 0.8 3.7 ± 0.7 3.9 ± 0.6 4.0 ± 0.6 4.1 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.7  < 0.001
 DT (sec) 0.22 ± 0.07 0.21 ± 0.07 0.22 ± 0.07 0.22 ± 0.07 0.23 ± 0.07 0.22 ± 0.06 0.23 ± 0.06  < 0.001
 E (mm/sec) 80.7 ± 27.4 81.7 ± 29.7 81.6 ± 28.5 79.5 ± 26.8 80.2 ± 26.4 81.8 ± 27.1 82.9 ± 26.7  < 0.001
 A (mm/sec) 97.3 ± 24.9 94.5 ± 26.8 96.9 ± 26.1 97.5 ± 24.4 97.7 ± 23.7 97.6 ± 23.5 98.6 ± 25.2 0.110
 E/A 0.9 ± 7.6 1.5 ± 12.2 1.1 ± 12.6 0.9 ± 2.3 0.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.4 0.387
 E/E’ 21.5 ± 123.1 12.6 ± 6.5 20.0 ± 107.9 24.9 ± 147.7 25.6 ± 152.7 15.0 ± 54.4 11.9 ± 6.0 0.466
 LVEF (%) 64.8 ± 12.4 63.3 ± 14.9 64.4 ± 13.3 65.2 ± 12.1 64.9 ± 11.8 65.3 ± 11.0 65.3 ± 10.3  < 0.001
 LVIDs (cm) 3.0 ± 0.7 2.8 ± 0.8 3.0 ± 0.7 3.0 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.7 3.1 ± 0.6 3.2 ± 0.6  < 0.001
 LVIDd (cm) 4.7 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 0.7 4.6 ± 0.7 4.8 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.6 4.9 ± 0.6 5.0 ± 0.6  < 0.001
 LV mass (gm) 201.4 ± 61.7 158.1 ± 56.8 186.1 ± 58.8 201.4 ± 57.4 213.9 ± 60.9 225.8 ± 63.9 238.5 ± 61.1  < 0.001
Medication         
 Antiplatelet 20,584 (32.0) 439 (23.6) 6524 (28.4) 6445 (32.7) 4289 (36.1) 2338 (36.2) 549 (36.6)  < 0.001
 Anticoagulant 2774 (4.3) 73 (3.9) 906 (4.0) 807 (4.1) 559 (4.7) 325 (5.0) 104 (6.9)  < 0.001
 CCB 27,767 (43.2) 719 (38.6) 8892 (38.8) 8531 (43.3) 5592 (47.1) 3254 (50.4) 779 (51.9)  < 0.001
 Beta-blocker 19,073 (29.6) 424 (22.8) 6082 (26.5) 5873 (29.8) 3922 (33.0) 2249 (34.8) 534 (35.6)  < 0.001
 ACEI/ARB 27,703 (43.1) 578 (31.0) 8570 (37.4) 8675 (44.0) 5768 (48.6) 3313 (51.3) 799 (53.3)  < 0.001
 Diuretics 16,060 (25.0) 509 (27.3) 5241 (22.9) 4525 (23.0) 3202 (27.0) 2028 (31.4) 555 (37.0)  < 0.001
 Statin 23,732 (36.9) 372 (20.0) 7572 (33.0) 7509 (38.1) 4937 (41.6) 2723 (42.2) 618 (41.2)  < 0.001
 Metformin 32,407 (50.4) 799 (42.9) 11,174 (48.7) 10,173 (51.6) 6163 (51.9) 3344 (51.8) 754 (50.3)  < 0.001
 SGLT2i 5385 (8.4) 62 (3.3) 1324 (5.8) 1641 (8.3) 1269 (10.7) 851 (13.2) 238 (15.9)  < 0.001
 DDP4i 22,464 (34.9) 631 (33.9) 7793 (34.0) 6844 (34.7) 4283 (36.1) 2380 (36.9) 533 (35.5)  < 0.001
 SU 21,744 (33.8) 576 (30.9) 7641 (33.3) 6667 (33.8) 4118 (34.7) 2231 (34.6) 511 (34.1) 0.010
 TZD 6075 (9.4) 131 (7.0) 1956 (8.5) 1794 (9.1) 1229 (10.3) 775 (12.0) 190 (12.7)  < 0.001
 Repaglinide 4712 (7.3) 206 (11.1) 1990 (8.7) 1306 (6.6) 749 (6.3) 384 (5.9) 77 (5.1)  < 0.001
 Acarbose 6206 (9.6) 157 (8.4) 2180 (9.5) 1855 (9.4) 1204 (10.1) 657 (10.2) 153 (10.2) 0.054
 GLP1 agonist 797 (1.2) 4 (0.2) 134 (0.6) 224 (1.1) 172 (1.4) 183 (2.8) 80 (5.3)  < 0.001
 Insulin 17,769 (27.6) 828 (44.5) 6794 (29.6) 5029 (25.5) 3017 (25.4) 1691 (26.2) 410 (27.3)  < 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index, VHD valvular heart disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD coronary artery disease, PAOD peripheral arterial occlusive disease, FPG fasting glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LA left atrium, DT deceleration time, E/A early diastolic transmitral flow velocity/late diastolic transmitral flow velocity, E’ early diastolic mitral annular velocity, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVIDd left ventricular internal diameter in diastole, LVIDs left ventricular internal diameter in systole, LV mass left ventricle mass, CCB calcium channel blocker, ACEI/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, SGLT-2 inhibitor sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, DPP4 inhibitor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, TZD thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonist glucagon like peptide-1 agonist