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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the entire study population

From: Association of glycated hemoglobin A1c levels with cardiovascular outcomes in the general population: results from the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium

  All (N = 36,180) No diabetes (N = 32,496) Prevalent diabetes (N = 3684)
Baseline characteristics
 Survey year 1987–2012 1987–2012 1987–2012
 Examination age (years) 57.4 (47.0, 65.1) 56.4 (45.3, 64.5) 64.0 (57.9, 69.0)
 Male (%) 17,069 (47.2) 15,095 (46.5) 1974 (53.6)
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 (23.8, 29.4) 26.1 (23.6, 29.0) 29.2 (26.4, 32.6)
 Daily smoker (%) 8243 (27.7) 7602 (27.9) 641 (25.7)
 Hypertension (%) 17,084 (47.5) 14,506 (44.9) 2578 (70.6)
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 133.5 (120.0, 149.0) 132.0 (120.0, 147.0) 140.0 (130.0, 155.5)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 80.0 (74.0, 90.0) 80.0 (74.0, 89.5) 80.5 (76.0, 90.0)
 Antihypertensive (%) 7827 (21.7) 6057 (18.7) 1770 (48.5)
 Diabetes (%) 3684 (10.2) 0 (0) 3684 (100)
 Diabetes treatment: none (%) 33,834 (95.1) 32,496 (100) 1338 (43.5)
 Diabetes treatment: insulin (%) 598 (1.7) 0 (0) 598 (19.4)
 Diabetes treatment: tablets, but no insulin (%) 1007 (2.8) 0 (0) 1007 (32.7)
 Diabetes treatment: dietary (%) 133 (0.4) 0 (0) 133 (4.3)
 Family history of CHD (%) 4716 (18.6) 4242 (18.7) 474 (17.6)
 Prev. MI or stroke (%) 2132 (6.0) 1587 (4.9) 545 (15.3)
 History of MI (%) 1417 (4.0) 1060 (3.3) 357 (10.0)
 Prev. stroke (%) 862 (2.4) 624 (1.9) 238 (6.6)
 History of heart failure (%) 1454 (5.7) 1046 (4.7) 408 (13.2)
Endpoints
 Cardiovascular mortality (%) 1392 (3.9) 1080 (3.3) 312 (8.5)
 Cardiovascular disease (%) 2339 (8.2) 2043 (7.8) 296 (12.1)
 Overall mortality (%) 4601 (12.7) 3768 (11.6) 833 (22.7)
Biomarkers
 HbA1c (mmol/mol) 36.6 (32.2, 39.9) 35.5 (32.2, 38.8) 50.8 (44.3, 59.6)
 HbA1c (%) 5.5 (5.1, 5.8) 5.4 (5.1, 5.7) 6.8 (6.2, 7.6)
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.9 (5.0, 6.7) 5.9 (5.1, 6.8) 5.7 (4.8, 6.5)
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)
  1. Baseline characteristics are presented as absolute and relative frequencies for categorical variables, and quartiles (medians with 25th and 75th percentiles) for continuous variables as well as range in years for years of baseline examinations
  2. The numbers provided for the cardiovascular disease endpoint are after excluding those individuals with history of cardiovascular disease
  3. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CHD coronary heart disease, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, MI myocardial infarction