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Table 2 Overview of symptoms and signs of HF according to the universal definition of HF [8]

From: Heart failure in type 2 diabetes: current perspectives on screening, diagnosis and management

Symptoms Signs
Typical Less typical More specific Less specific
• Breathlessness
• Orthopnea
• Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
• Reduced exercise tolerance
• Fatigue
• Tiredness
• Ankle swelling
• Inability to exercise
• Swelling of parts of the body other than ankles
• Bendopnea
• Nocturnal cough
• Wheezing
• Bloated feeling
• Postprandial satiety
• Loss of appetite
• Decline in cognitive function
• Confusion (especially in the elderly)
• Depression
• Dizziness
• Syncope
• Elevated jugular venous pressure
• Third heart sound (gallop rhythm)
• Summation gallop with third and fourth heart sounds
• Cardiomegaly
• Laterally displaced apical impulse
• Hepatojugular reflux
• Cheyne Stokes respiration in advanced HF
• Unintentional weight gain (>2 kg/week)
• Weight loss (in advanced HF) with muscle wasting and cachexia
• Tissue wasting (cachexia)
• Cardiac murmur
• Peripheral oedema (ankle, sacral, scrotal)
• Pulmonary rales
• Reduced air entry and dullness to percussion at lung bases suggestive
of pleural effusion
• Tachycardia
• Irregular pulse
• Tachypnoea
• Hepatomegaly
• Ascites
• Cold extremities
• Oliguria
• Narrow pulse pressure