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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of propensity score matched cohort

From: Differences in outcomes of hospitalizations for heart failure after SGLT2 inhibitor treatment: effect modification by atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

  All patients Patients with ASCVD Patients without ASCVD
  Dapagliflozin
(N = 9586)
Empagliflozin
(N = 9586)
ASMD Dapagliflozin
(N = 2401)
Empagliflozin
(N = 2434)
ASMD Dapagliflozin
(N = 7185)
Empagliflozin
(N = 7152)
ASMD
Age, mean (SD) years 59.9 (11.6) 60.0 (12.0) 0.01 63.6 (10.3) 63.8 (10.8) 0.01 58.6 (11.7) 58.7 (12.2) 0.01
Female, % 40.2 40.2 0.01 28.0 27.7 0.05 44.3 44.5 < 0.01
HbA1c, mean (SD) % 8.7 (1.6) 8.7 (1.7) < 0.01 8.6 (1.6) 8.5 (1.7) 0.04 8.8 (1.6) 8.8 (1.8) <0.01
SBP, mean (SD) mmHg 140.0 (19.3) 140.0 (19.7)  < 0.01 138.7 (19.9) 137.9 (20.0) 0.04 140.4 (19.1) 140.7 (19.6) < 0.01
DBP, mean (SD) mmHg 78.7 (12.1) 78.6 (12.0) < 0.01 77.9 (12.2) 77.1 (12.0) 0.06 79.0 (12.1) 79.2 (12.0)  0.01
eGFR, mean (SD) ml/min/1.73 m2 92.8 (27.1) 92.3 (31.6) 0.01 86.3 (25.2) 84.4 (27.9) 0.07 94.9 (27.4) 95.1 (32.6) < 0.01
Hospital level, %    0.03    < 0.01    0.03
 Medical centers 54.4 54.5   55.6 55.9   54.0 54.0  
 Regional hospitals 27.2 26.6   29.2 29.1   26.6 25.8  
 District hospitals 18.4 18.9   15.3 15.0   19.5 20.2  
Specialty of prescriber, %    0.03    0.02    0.03
 Metabolism & Endocrinology 58.0 57.5   32.8 34.1   66.4 65.4  
 Cardiology 28.9 28.9   55.8 54.5   19.9 20.2  
 Others 13.2 13.6   11.5 11.5   13.8 14.4  
Previous hospitalizations, % 15.3 15.1 < 0.01 28.7 29.8 0.02 10.8 10.1 0.02
ASCVD, % 25.1 25.4  < 0.01 100.0 100.0    
 Coronary heart disease 21.3 21.7 0.01 85.1 85.6 0.02
 Ischemic stroke 3.9 3.3 0.03 15.4 13.2 0.06
 Peripheral artery disease 1.3 1.5 0.02 5.0 6.0 0.04
Comorbidity, %          
 Hypertension 67.6 68.0 < 0.01 76.5 76.8 < 0.01 64.6 65.0 < 0.01
 Hyperlipidemia 72.6 72.3 < 0.01 72.4 71.8 0.01 72.6 72.5 < 0.01
 Heart failure 5.7 5.8 < 0.01 14.5 14.6 < 0.01 2.7 2.8 < 0.01
 Atrial fibrillation 3.2 3.3 < 0.01 5.4 4.6 0.03 2.5 2.9 0.02
 Diabetic retinopathy 8.0 7.8 < 0.01 6.6 6.9 0.01 8.5 8.2 0.01
 Diabetic neuropathy 9.0 8.3 0.02 7.6 7.6 < 0.01 9.5 8.5 0.03
 Diabetic nephropathy 23.8 23.8 < 0.01 16.7 18.1 0.04 26.2 25.8 0.01
 COPD 3.1 3.1 < 0.01 5.3 5.3 < 0.01 2.3 2.4 < 0.01
 Liver disease 17.2 17.6 0.01 12.2 12.2  < 0.01 18.8 19.4 0.01
 Depression 1.5 1.6 < 0.01 1.3 1.8 0.04 1.6 1.5 < 0.01
 Schizophrenia 0.4 0.4 < 0.01 0.3 0.3  < 0.01 0.5 0.5 < 0.01
 Cancer 6.0 6.0 < 0.01 5.3 6.2 0.04 6.3 5.9 0.02
CCI, mean (SD) scores 2.5 (1.5) 2.5 (1.5) 0.01 2.8 (1.7) 2.8 (1.7) 0.05 2.4 (1.4) 2.4 (1.4) < 0.01
Co-medications, %          
 Anti-platelet agents 32.8 32.7  < 0.01 77.8 79.6 0.04 17.7 16.8 0.02
 Anti-coagulant agents 3.3 3.4  < 0.01 5.3 5.0 0.01 2.6 2.9 0.02
 Beta blockers 28.4 28.5 < 0.01 55.3 55.3 < 0.01 19.4 19.3 < 0.01
 ACEI / ARB 60.7 61.1 < 0.01 74.6 72.7 0.04 56.1 57.1 0.02
 Calcium channel blockers 40.3 41.2 0.02 50.5 45.9 0.09 36.9 39.6 0.06
 Spironolactone 2.5 2.3 0.01 4.5 3.8 0.04 1.8 1.8 < 0.01
 Other diuretics 9.0 9.6 0.02 13.7 13.7 < 0.01 7.5 8.1 0.03
 Digoxin 1.1 1.1 < 0.01 2.1 1.4 0.05 0.8 0.9 0.02
 Nitrate 6.3 6.8 0.02 19.6 20.3 0.02 1.9 2.2 0.02
 Statin 66.3 66.2 < 0.01 77.0 79.3 0.06 62.7 61.7 0.02
 Fibrate 9.1 10.0 0.03 8.1 8.8 0.02 9.4 10.4 0.03
 Ezetimibe 11.6 11.8 < 0.01 14.7 15.6 0.03 10.6 10.5 < 0.01
 Metformin 87.9 87.7 < 0.01 86.8 86.0 0.02 88.2 88.2 < 0.01
 Sulfonylurea 54.8 54.5  < 0.01 55.1 53.1 0.04 54.7 55.0  < 0.01
 DPP4 inhibitors 56.6 56.9 < 0.01 56.6 54.5 0.04 56.7 57.7 0.02
 Acarbose 16.1 15.7 0.01 18.2 16.1 0.05 15.4 15.5 < 0.01
 Glinides 1.8 2.1 0.02 1.4 2.1 0.05 1.9 2.1 0.01
 Thiazolidinediones 22.2 21.9 < 0.01 20.6 21.2 0.01 22.7 22.2 0.01
 GLP-1 RAs 0.9 0.9 < 0.01 0.8 0.6 0.02 1.0 1.0 < 0.01
 Insulins 16.7 16.7 < 0.01 14.0 14.5 0.01 17.6 17.5 < 0.01
 NSAID 7.9 8.0 < 0.01 8.3 8.0 0.01 7.8 8.0 < 0.01
  1. ACEI: angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors; ARB: angiotensin II receptor blockers; ASCVD: atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; ASMD: absolute standardized mean difference; CCI: Charlson Comorbidity Index; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; DPP4: dipeptidyl peptidase-4; eGFR: estimated glomerular filtration rate; GLP-1 RAs: glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists; HbA1c: glycated hemoglobin A1c; NSIAD: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; SBP: systolic blood pressure; SD: standard deviation