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Table 1 Patient characteristics

From: Relationship between skin autofluorescence levels and clinical events in patients with heart failure undergoing cardiac rehabilitation

  Low SAF (n = 99) High SAF (n = 105) P-value
Age 61.5 ± 16.0 74.3 ± 10.5 < 0.01
Male (%) 60 (60.6) 65 (61.9) 0.84
BMI 23.0 ± 4.0 23.1 ± 4.1 0.74
Hypertension (%) 50 (50.5) 60 (57.1) 0.34
Diabetes mellitus (%) 35 (35.4) 39 (37.1) 0.79
Dyslipidemia (%) 39 (39.4) 43 (41.0) 0.82
Chronic kidney disease (%) 45 (45.9) 65 (62.5) 0.02
Current smoking (%) 14 (14.3) 10 (9.6) 0.30
COPD (%) 1 (1.0) 5 (4.8) 0.11
History of MI (%) 12 (12.1) 22 (21.0) 0.08
History of PCI (%) 15 (15.2) 26 (24.8) 0.08
History of CABG (%) 6 (6.1) 24 (22.9) < 0.01
History of valvular surgery (%) 10 (10.1) 13 (12.4) 0.60
History of CHF (%) 49 (49.5) 56 (53.9) 0.53
Valvular disease (%)
 Aortic valve stenosis 11 (11.1) 22 (21.0) 0.06
 Aortic valve regurgitation 2 (2.0) 3 (2.9) 0.70
 Mitral valve stenosis 1 (1.0) 1 (1.0) 0.96
 Mitral valve regurgitation 15 (15.2) 27 (25.7) 0.06
 Tricuspid valve regurgitation 15 (15.2) 13 (12.4) 0.57
Atrial fibrillation (%) 30 (30.3) 36 (34.3) 0.54
Dilated cardiomyopathy (%) 12 (12.1) 8 (7.6) 0.27
Echocardiography
 LVEF (%) 49 ± 20 51 ± 18 0.46
 E/e′ 19.1 ± 11.0 20.0 ± 11.7 0.77
Laboratory data
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.2 ± 2.3 12.2 ± 2.1 < 0.01
 Albumin, g/dL 3.7 ± 0.5 3.6 ± 0.5 0.04
 HbA1c (%) 6.0 ± 0.7 6.1 ± 0.9 0.36
 Fasting blood sugar, mg/dL 97 ± 21 106 ± 30 0.02
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 167 ± 33 165 ± 38 0.69
 LDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 98 ± 27 96 ± 32 0.76
 HDL-cholesterol, mg/dL 46 ± 14 46 ± 12 0.85
 Triglyceride, mg/dL 109 ± 54 104 ± 46 0.53
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 66.5 ± 27.5 51.9 ± 25.0 < 0.01
 BNP, pg/dL 325.4 ± 333.4 516.4 ± 862.7 0.04
Medication
 Aspirin (%) 27 (27.3) 52 (50.0) < 0.01
 ACE-I/ARB (%) 67 (67.7) 72 (69.2) 0.81
 Statin (%) 44 (44.4) 63 (60.6) 0.02
 β-Blocker (%) 70 (70.7) 87 (83.7) 0.03
 Ca antagonist (%) 27 (27.3) 37 (35.6) 0.20
 Loop diuretics (%) 63 (63.6) 75 (72.1) 0.19
 Oral hypoglycemic agent (%) 10 (10.1) 22 (21.0) 0.03
 Insulin (%) 4 (4.0) 9 (8.6) 0.19
Anthropometric data and grip strength
 Body fat percentage (%) 23.9 ± 7.8 24.9 ± 10.7 0.48
 Lean body weight (kg) 46.7 ± 11.3 44.0 ± 9.9 0.11
 Grip strength (kg) 28.0 ± 10.6 25.5 ± 8.1 0.23