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Table 1 Patient characteristics of overall study cohort and subgroups stratified by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels (i.e., ≤ 60, < 60–90, > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) after propensity score matching

From: Renoprotective effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors among type 2 diabetes patients with different baseline kidney function: a multi-center study

Characteristics Overall eGFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 60 < eGFR ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2
SGLT-2is
n = 13,666
oGLDs
n = 13,666
SGLT-2is
n = 2300
oGLDs
n = 2300
SGLT-2is
n = 5705
oGLDs
n = 5705
SGLT-2is
n = 5509
oGLDs
n = 5509
Age (years), mean (SD) 60.4 (11.6) 60.4 (12.5) 67.7 (10.2) 67.6 (11.0) 62.2 (10.3) 62.5 (11.0) 55.6 (11.4) 55.7 (12.1)
Male, n (%) 7922 (58.0) 7803 (57.1) 1312 (57.0) 1319(57.4) 3587 (62.9) 3513 (61.6) 2919 (53.0) 2837 (51.5)
Baseline HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 8.68 (1.5) 8.74 (1.5) 8.7 (1.5) 8.64 (1.6) 8.56 (1.4) 8.61 (1.5) 8.81 (1.5) 8.86 (1.5)
Baseline HbA1c (mmol/mol), mean 71 72 72 71 70 71 73 73
Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2), mean (SD) 86.03 (27.2) 85.85 (31.6) 48.74 (9.5) 48.5 (10.0) 75.58 (8.5) 75.49 (8.6) 112.56 (19.4) 113.58 (21.2)
 eGFR > 90, n (%) 5547 (16.9) 5592 (17.7) 5509 (100.0) 5509 (100.0)
 60 < eGFR ≤ 90, n (%) 5811 (42.5) 5654 (41.4) 5705 (100.0) 5705 (100.0)
 eGFR ≤ 60, n (%) 2308 (40.6) 2420 (40.9) 2300 (100.0) 2300 (100.0)
eGFR change in the year before the index date (SD) (mL/min/1.73 m2) − 1.59 (13.1) − 1.55 (15.1) − 4.13 (9.4) − 4.26 (11.2) − 3.02 (11.6) − 2.92 (13.0) 0.94 (15.6) 0.77 (17.0)
Presence of microvascular diseases, n (%) 6124 (44.8) 6084 (44.5) 1317 (57.3) 1333 (58.0) 2551 (44.7) 2520 (44.2) 2185 (39.7) 2157 (39.2)
History of cardiovascular disease, n (%)
 Myocardial infarction 712 (5.2) 705 (5.2) 177 (7.7) 181 (7.9) 300 (5.8) 327 (5.7) 203 (3.7) 180 (3.3)
 Unstable angina 2115 (15.5) 2096 (15.3) 473 (20.6) 465 (20.2) 984 (17.2) 924 (16.2) 645 (11.7) 632 (11.5)
 Stroke 1912 (14.0) 1950 (14.3) 485 (21.1) 487 (21.2) 906 (15.9) 937 (16.4) 511 (9.3) 506 (9.2)
 Heart failure 1377 (10.1) 1419 (10.4) 430 (18.7) 415 (18.0) 584 (10.2) 575 (10.1) 361 (6.6) 358 (6.5)
 Atrial fibrillation 578 (4.2) 585 (4.3) 190 (8.3) 201 (8.7) 269 (4.7) 274 (4.8) 112 (2.0) 107 (1.9)
Peripheral artery disease 683 (5.0) 679 (5.0) 222 (9.7) 217 (9.4) 292 (5.1) 293 (5.1) 160 (2.9) 160 (2.9)
 History of frailty, n (%) 1775 (13.0) 1850 (13.5) 423 (18.4) 444 (19.3) 733 (12.8) 776 (13.6) 609 (11.1) 636 (11.5)
History of GLD use, n (%)
 Metformin 10,749 (78.7) 10,657 (78.0) 1540 (67.0) 1523 (66.2) 4548 (79.7) 4492 (78.7) 4513 (81.9) 4489 (81.5)
 Sulfonylurea 6355 (46.5) 6062 (44.4) 1246 (54.2) 1192 (51.8) 2585 (45.3) 2500 (43.5) 2407 (43.7) 2250 (40.8)
 DPP-4 inhibitor 9670 (70.8) 9461 (69.2) 1715 (74.6) 1706 (74.2) 4083 (71.7) 4024 (70.5) 3731 (67.7) 3613 (65.6)
 Thiazolidinedione 3268 (23.9) 2770 (20.3) 559 (24.3) 538 (23.4) 1414 (24.8) 1171 (20.5) 1210 (22.0) 1008 (18.3)
 GLP-1 receptor agonist 369 (2.7) 403 (2.9) 54 (2.3) 63 (2.7) 111 (1.9) 112 (2.0) 203 (3.7) 224 (4.1)
 Insulin 3054 (22.3) 3200 (23.4) 651 (28.3) 691 (30.0) 1196 (21.0) 1215 (21.3) 1162 (21.1) 1191 (21.6)
 Total number of GLD class 2.38 (1.09) 2.45 (1.08) 2.48 (1.11) 2.51 (1.05) 2.37 (1.08) 2.44 (1.08) 2.32 (1.07) 2.40 (1.08)
Other medications, n (%)
 Antihypertensive drug 10,088 (73.8) 10,097 (73.9) 2079 (90.4) 2093 (91.0) 4491 (78.7) 4525 (79.3) 3392 (61.6) 3398 (61.7)
  ACE inhibitor 1142 (8.4) 1102 (8.1) 236 (10.3) 231 (10.0) 528 (9.3) 524 (9.2) 361 (6.6) 324 (5.9)
  ARB 7829 (57.3) 7830 (57.3) 1663 (72.3) 1695 (73.7) 3531 (61.9) 3538 (62.0) 2537 (46.1) 2528 (45.9)
  β-blocker 5021 (36.7) 5007 (36.6) 1184 (51.5) 1176 (51.1) 2274 (39.9) 2244 (39.3) 1484 (26.9) 1501 (27.2)
  Loop diuretic 1096 (8.0) 1107 (8.1) 462 (20.1) 486 (21.1) 397 (7.0) 402 (7.0) 230 (4.2) 229 (4.2)
  Thiazide diuretic 468 (3.4) 458 (3.4) 123 (5.3) 132 (5.7) 221 (3.9) 220 (3.9) 113 (2.1) 104 (1.9)
 Aldosterone antagonist 585 (4.3) 589 (4.3) 210 (9.1) 204 (8.9) 242 (4.2) 248 (4.3) 129 (2.3) 124 (2.3)
Statin 8518 (62.3) 8476 (62.0) 1487 (64.7) 1504 (65.4) 3572 (62.6) 3559 (62.4) 3347 (60.8) 3311 (60.1)
  1. ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, DPP-4 inhibitor: dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GLD glucose-lowering drug, GLP-1 receptor agonist glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, oGLDs other glucose-lowering drugs, SD standard deviation, SE standard error, SGLT-2is sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors