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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of 104 697 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus categorised in four groups of estimated glucose disposal rate (eGDR)

From: Estimated glucose disposal rate and risk of stroke and mortality in type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study

  All
n = 104 697
eGDR < 4
(mg/kg/min)
n = 24 706
eGDR 4–6
(mg/kg/min)
n = 40 187
eGDR 6–8
(mg/kg/min)
n = 21 042
eGDR > 8
(mg/kg/min)
n = 18 762
Age, years (SD) 62.9 (11.5) 62.3 (10.2) 65.3 (10.7) 62.0 (12.7) 59.5 (12.2)
Age at onset, yrs (SD) 58.8 (11.5) 57.6 (10.3) 60.9 (10.8) 58.3 (12.5) 56.1 (12.3)
Diabetes duration, years (SD) 4.1 (5.7) 4.7 (6.1) 4.3 (5.8) 3.6 (5.4) 3.5 (5.3)
Women, n/N (%) 46099/104697 (44.0) 8621/24706 (34.9) 17797/40187 (44.3) 10616/21042 (50.5) 9065/18762 (48.3)
Smoking, n/N (%) 16125/98754 (16.3) 3738/23150 (16.2) 5542/37932 (14.6) 3546/19903 (17.8) 3299/17769 (18.6)
Marital status, n/N (%)
 Married 57106/104697 (54.5) 12,762/24706 (51.7) 22573/40187 (56.2) 11082/21042 (52.7) 10689/18762 (57.0)
 Separat 18352/104697 (17.5) 4535/24706 (18.4) 6721/40187 (16.7) 3670/21042 (17.4) 3426/18762 (18.3)
 Single 17900/104697 (17.1) 5175/24706 (21.0) 5781/40187 (14.4) 3813/21042 (18.1) 3131/18762 (16.7)
 Widowed 11339/104697 (10.8) 2234/24706 (9.0) 5112/40187 (12.7) 2477/21042 (11.8) 1516/18762 (8.1)
Country of birth, n/N (%)
 Europe except Sweden 11367/104697 (10.9) 2897/24706 (11.7) 4323/40187 (10.8) 2202/21042 (10.5) 1945/18762 (10.4)
 Rest of world 8804/104697 (8.4) 1279/24706 (5.2) 2397/40187 (6.0) 2157/21042 (10.3) 2971/18762 (15.8)
 Sweden 84526/104697 (80.7) 20,530 /24706 (83.1) 33467/40187 (83.3) 16683/21042 (79.3) 13846/18762 (73.8)
Education, n/N (%)
 College level 45875/102992 (44.5) 11,178/24300 (46.0) 17124/39569 (43.3) 9332/20686 (45.1) 8241/18437 (44.7)
 Elementary school 38725/102992 (37.6) 9384/24300 (38.6) 15796/39569 (39.9) 7592/20686 (36.7) 5953/18437 (32.3)
 Upper secondary school 18392/102992 (17.9) 3738/24300 (15.4) 6649/39569 (16.8) 3762/20686 (18.2) 4243/18437 (23.1)
Waist, cm (SD) 104.5 (13.5) 118.4 (11.2) 103.1 (8.9) 100.1 (13.8) 93.9 (9.0)
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 30.3 (5.4) 35.0 (5.3) 29.8 (4.2) 29.1 (5.2) 26.9 (3.7)
HbA1c, mmol/mol (SD) 53.3 (14.7) 61.9 (18.0) 51.2 (12.7) 52.3 (13.9) 47.4 (8.8)
eGDR, mg/kg/min (SD) 5.6 (2.2) 2.9 (1.0) 5.0 (0.6) 6.9 (0.6) 9.1 (0.8)
SBP, mmHg (SD) 137.4 (17.1) 140.3 (17.3) 139.2 (17.0) 136.0 (16.7) 131.1 (15.7)
DBP, mmHg (SD) 78.8 (9.9) 81.0 (10.4) 78.8 (10.0) 78.1 (9.5) 76.8 (9.0)
Total cholesterol, mmol/L (SD) 5.1 (1.1) 5.0 (1.1) 5.0 (1.1) 5.2 (1.1) 5.2 (1.1)
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L (SD) 2.9 (1.0) 2.9 (1.0) 2.9 (1.0) 3.0 (1.0) 3.1 (1.0)
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L (SD) 1.3 (0.4) 1.2 (0.3) 1.3 (0.4) 1.3 (0.4) 1.4 (0.4)
Triglycerides, mmol/L (SD) 1.9 (1.2) 2.3 (1.4) 1.9 (1.1) 1.9 (1.2) 1.6 (1.0)
Creatinine, µmol/L (SD) 76.8 (24.4) 78.9 (28.0) 78.9 (24.8) 74.2 (22.7) 72.4 (18.5)
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD) 84.5 (23.9) 85.2 (24.9) 81.4 (23.3) 86.2 (24.5) 88.6 (22.3)
Diabetes treatment, n/N (%)
 Diet only 40763/104697 (38.9) 6110/24706 (24.7) 16092/40187 (40.0) 9303/21042 (44.2) 9258/18762 (49.3)
 Insulin 6662/104697 (6.4) 1725/24706 (7.0) 2307/40187 (5.7) 1248/21042 (5.9) 1382/18762 (7.4)
 Tablets 48546/104697 (46.4) 13212/24706 (53.5) 18721/40187 (46.6) 9305/21042 (44.2) 7308/18762 (39.0)
 Tablets and insulin 8726/104697 (8.3) 3659/24706 (14.8) 3067/40187 (7.6) 1186/21042 (5.6) 814/18762 (4.3)
Anti hypertensive treatment, n/N (%) 70101/104697 (67.0) 24193/24706 (97.9) 37072/40187 (92.3) 8629/21042 (41.0) 207/18762 (1.1)
Lipid lowering treatment, n/N (%) 47144/102086 (46.2) 13289/23932 (55.5) 21337/39106 (54.6) 7520/20587 (36.5) 4998/18461 (27.1)
Microalbuminurea, n/N (%) 9415/69691 (13.5) 3037/15543 (19.5) 3781/26785 (14.1) 1571/14158 (11.1) 1026/13205 (7.8)
Macroalbuminurea, n/N (%) 4759/79042 (6.0) 1712/18058 (9.5) 1929/30447 (6.3) 689/15923 (4.3) 429/14614 (2.9)
Physical Activity, times/week, n/N (%)
 1–2 19205/94161 (20.4) 4937/22029 (22.4) 7469/36215 (20.6) 3778/18990 (19.9) 3021/16927 (17.9)
 3–5 2221094161 (23.6) 4250/22029 (19.3) 8746/36215 (24.2) 4641/18990 (24.4) 4573/16927 (27.0)
 < 1 1136494161 (12.1) 3758/22029 (17.1) 4109/36215 (11.4) 2087/18990 (11.0) 1410/16927 (8.3)
 > 5 3022894161 (32.1) 4977/22029 (22.6) 12009/36215 (33.2) 6503/18990 (34.2%) 6739/16927 (39.8)
 Never 1115494161 (11.9) 4107 /22029 (18.6) 3882/36215 (10.7) 1981/18990 (10.4) 1184/16927 (7.0)
History of comorbidities, n/N (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 8135/104697 (7.8) 2561/24706 (10.4) 4232/40187 (10.5) 1039/21042 (4.9) 303/18762 (1.6)
 Coronary heart disease 15161/104697 (14.5) 4596/24706 (18.6) 7780/40187 (19.4) 2037/21042 (9.7) 748/18762 (4.0)
 Acute myocardial infarction 8135/104697 (7.8) 2561/24706 (10.4) 4232/40187 (10.5) 1039/21042 (4.9) 303/18762 (1.6)
 Atrial fibrillation 5415/104697 (5.2) 1734/24706 (7.0) 2554/40187 (6.4) 827/21042 (3.9) 300/18762 (1.6)
 Heart failure 4221/104697 (4.0) 1650/24706 (6.7) 1876/40187 (4.7) 526/21042 (2.5) 169/18762 (0.9)
 Hyperglycaemia 759/104697 (0.7) 208/24706 (0.8) 260/40187 (0.7) 157/21042 (0.8) 134/18762 (0.7)
 Amputation 150/104697 (0.1) 54/24706 (0.2) 60/40187 (0.2) 21/21042 (0.1) 15/18762 (0.1)
 Psychiatric disorder 3277/104697 (3.1) 819/24706 (3.3) 1017/40187 (2.5) 777/21042 (3.7) 664/18762 (3.5)
 End-stage renal failure 107/104697 (0.1) 27/24706 (0.1) 43/40187 (0.1) 27/21042 (0.13) 10/18762 (0.1)
 Cancer 6826/104697 (6.5) 1469/24706 (6.0) 2870/40187 (7.1) 1346/21042 (6.4) 1141/18762 (6.1)
 Gastric bypass operation 105/104697 (0.1) 32/24706 (0.1) 38/40187 (0.1) 20/21042 (0.1) 15/18762 (0.1)
  1. SD standard deviation