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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Impact of empagliflozin on right ventricular parameters and function among patients with type 2 diabetes

  Empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 44) Placebo (n = 46)
Age, years* 64 (57, 69) 64 (56, 72)
Body mass index, kg/m2* 26.7 (24.5, 30.2) 26.6 (24.4, 29.3)
Body surface area, m2* 2.0 (1.8, 2.1) 1.9 (1.8, 2.1)
Male sex 90 96
Smoking history 41 46
Duration of type 2 diabetes, years* 10.0 (4.0, 15.0) 10.0 (5.0, 15.0)
Hypertension 92 90
History of myocardial infarction 39 44
History of percutaneous coronary intervention > 2 months before screening 53 40
History of coronary artery bypass surgery > 2 months before screening 57 56
History of heart failure 4.0 8.0
History of peripheral artery disease 4.0 6.0
History of transient ischemic attack or stroke 16 13
Serum creatinine, mg/dL* 0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)
Hemoglobin A1c, %* 7.9 (7.5, 8.4) 7.9 (7.3, 8.7)
Hematocrit, %* 0.42 (0.40, 0.46) 0.42 (0.39, 0.44)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg* 128 (120, 143) 134 (125, 146)
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg* 74 (69, 82) 77 (71, 81)
Heart rate, bpm* 67 (60, 77) 68 (60, 76)
Cardiac MRI data   
 Left ventricular mass, g 116.5 (26.3) 120.9 (33.0)
 Left ventricular mass index, g/m2 59.3 (10.9) 62.2 (12.8)
 Left ventricular end diastolic volume index, mL/m2 63.3 (15.5) 71.4 (15.4)
 Left ventricular end systolic volume index. mL/m2 27.1 (10.5) 32.3 (11.8)
 Left ventricular ejection fraction. % 58.0 (7.5) 55.5 (8.7)
Echocardiographic data   
 Right ventricular systolic pressure, mmHg† 22.8 (6.5) 20.7 (4.4)
 Peak tricuspid regurgitation velocity, m/s† 2.2 (0.38) 2.1 (0.27)
 Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, cm 2.0 (1.2) 1.8 (0.5)
 Right ventricular S’, mm 10.4 (2.7) 10.9 (2.9)
Biomarkers   
 NT-pro B-type natriuretic peptide, pg/mL* 97.0 (46.0, 190) 116 (59.0, 230)
 High sensitivity troponin I, ng/mL* 0.03 (0.03, 0.20) 0.03 (0.03, 0.03)
Medications at baseline   
 Aspirin/P2Y12 inhibitor 82 85
 Beta blocker 78 81
 Calcium channel blocker 12 31
Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker 82 85
 Statin 96 96
 Insulin 25 25
 Metformin 96 92
  1. Data expressed as percentages or mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise specified
  2. *Median (25th, 75th percentile)
  3. †Data available for 14 in the empagliflozin group and 17 in the placebo group