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Table 2 Cost-effectiveness of add-on dapagliflozin to standard care versus standard care alone in the base-case, subgroup, and scenario analyses, from the perspective of healthcare system in Taiwan

From: Cost-effectiveness evaluation of add-on dapagliflozin for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction from perspective of healthcare systems in Asia–Pacific region

  Cost (US$) QALYs or LYs ICER (US$) Probability of cost-effectiveness, dapagliflozin vs. standard care (%)
  Add-on dapagliflozin Standard care \(\Delta\) Costs Add-on dapagliflozin Standard care \(\Delta\) QALYs or \(\Delta \mathrm{LYs}\)   WTP at US$ 25,000 WTP at US$ 75,000
Base-case analysis          
 QALY gain as effectiveness outcome 87,805 76,501 11,304 11.03 10.09 0.94 12,035 99.3 100
 LY gain as effectiveness outcome 87,805 76,501 11,304 14.71 13.46 1.25 9,080 100 100
Scenario analyses  
(1) Time horizon          
 30 years 104,623 87,940 16,682 13.14 11.60 1.54 10,832 100 100
 18 months 16,719 15,732 987 2.10 2.08 0.03 37,386 43.8 61.8
(2) Discounting rate          
 0% 104,288 90,112 14,176 13.1 11.89 1.21 11,681 100 100
 10% 62,215 55,130 7,085 7.82 7.27 0.54 13,007 97.3 100
(3) Under assumption of equal risk of clinical events between the two treatments
 Cardiovascular death 81,581 76,501 5,081 10.20 10.09 0.11 44,670 33 60.9
 Non-cardiovascular death 86,887 76,501 10,387 10.91 10.9 0.82 12,704 98.9 100
 Hospitalization for HF 87,995 76,501 11,444 11.03 10.09 0.94 12,204 99.6 100
 Emergency visits for HF 87,818 76,501 11,317 11.03 10.09 0.94 12,055 99.9 100
(4) Adverse events of treatments considered in the model 88,074 76,727 11,347 10.95 10.02 0.92 12,288 99.3% 100
  1. QALY quality-adjusted life-year, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, WTP willingness-to-pay, LY life-year, HF heart failure