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Table 1 Input parameters for base-case cost-effectiveness analysis of add-on dapagliflozin to standard care versus standard care alone for heart failure

From: Cost-effectiveness evaluation of add-on dapagliflozin for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction from perspective of healthcare systems in Asia–Pacific region

Monthly transition probabilitiesa Estimate Standard deviation Distribution Data source
Hospitalization for HF     
 Add-on dapagliflozin 0.005611395 0.001533432 Beta DAPA-HF trial [10]
 Standard care 0.007881397 0.001816007 Beta
Cardiovascular death    
 Add-on dapagliflozin 0.005509456 0.001519518 Beta
 Standard care 0.006698743 0.001675218 Beta
Non-cardiovascular death    
 Add-on dapagliflozin 0.005509456 0.001519518 Beta
 Standard care 0.001312441 0.000743514 Beta
Cost parameters (per month) Cost (US$) Range Distribution Data source
Drug costs of dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily) 28.6  ± 14.3 Gamma NHIRD
Stable HF 450  ± 225 Gamma
Emergency visit or hospitalization for HF 2887  ± 1443.5 Gamma
Cost during month before cardiovascular death 3430  ± 1715 Gamma
Cost during month before non-cardiovascular death 3390  ± 1695 Gamma
Health utilities parameters Estimate Standard error Distribution Data source
Stable HF 0.770 0.016 Beta [19]
Utility decrement associated with aging (per year increase) − 0.0016 0.0001 Beta
Utility decrement of emergency visit or hospitalization related to HF − 0.321 0.02 Beta
  1. DAPA-HF dapagliflozin in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, HF heart failure, NHIRD National Health Insurance Research Database
  2. aThe monthly transition probabilities were transformed as follows: (1) Probability (obtained from DAPA-HF trial) transformed to a rate: [− ln (1 − p)]/t. (2) Rate transformed to a probability (monthly transition probability applied in the analyses): 1 − exp(– rt), where r is the rate, p is the probability, and t is the time