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Table 2 Sex-related differences of cardiac structure and function in HFpEF patients with and without DM

From: Effect of diabetes mellitus on the development of left ventricular contractile dysfunction in women with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction

  Nondiabetic patients (n = 134) p-value Diabetic patients (n = 90) p-value
Women (n = 61) Men (n = 73) Women (n = 47) Men (n = 43)
Cardiac MRI parameters
 LVEDV, mL 108.9 ± 22.4 131.0 ± 14.1 < 0.001 114.8 ± 27.1 142.4 ± 39.4 0.019
 LVEDV index, mL/m2 75.2 ± 16.3 80.4 ± 11.6 0.182 78.3 ± 18.7 81.0 ± 23.3 0.709
 LVESV, mL 46.3 ± 14.4 58.8 ± 9.9 < 0.001 50.5 ± 17.9 67.3 ± 23.5 0.021
 LVESV index, mL/m2 31.9 ± 10.5 36.2 ± 7.6 0.097 34.4 ± 11.8 38.9 ± 15.3 0.337
 LVSV, mL 62.7 ± 15.0 72.2 ± 10.3 0.010 64.4 ± 19.8 75.1 ± 22.8 0.141
 LVSV index, mL/m2 43.2 ± 10.5 44.2 ± 7.2 0.683 43.9 ± 13.9 42.1 ± 11.8 0.679
 LVEF, % 58.6 ± 7.9 55.7 ± 4.9 0.123 58.9 ± 7.5 56.5 ± 6.4 0.304
 LVM, g 105.8 (95.1–129.8) 137.7 (112.3–175.1) < 0.001 119.5 (100.7–133.2)* 150.5 (129.7–169.9)# < 0.001
 LVM index, g/m2 70.0 (62.5–88.1) 81.3 (67.6–101.7) 0.044 82.9 (67.6–90.1)* 83.5 (70.7–96.9) 0.612
 LAV, mL 66.2 ± 32.0 72.9 ± 33.0 0.374 56.4 ± 23.1* 53.3 ± 28.1# 0.705
 LAV index, mL/m2 44.5 ± 22.2 43.6 ± 19.8 0.857 37.9 ± 15.1 37.3 ± 19.2 0.906
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEF, % 61.0 ± 9.8 59.1 ± 8.1 0.319 62.6 ± 10.1 60.2 ± 8.7 0.343
 E/A ratio 1.0 (0.6, 1.6) 1.3 (0.7, 1.9) 0.263 0.8 (0.7, 1.4) 1.3 (0.8, 1.5) 0.155
 E/e’ average ratio 19.1 ± 3.0 17.3 ± 2.3 0.025 20.3 ± 2.9 18.1 ± 3.1 0.006
 RWT 0.38 (0.35–0.42) 0.39 (0.33–0.42) 0.220 0.40 (0.36–0.43) 0.40 (0.34–0.42) 0.540
 PASP, mmHg 36.9 ± 4.9 34.8 ± 8.1 0.295 36.2 ± 7.9 37.0 ± 7.9 0.747
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, or media (Q1–Q3)
  2. HFpEF: heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; DM: diabetes mellitus; LVEDV: left ventricular end-diastolic volume; LVESV: left ventricular end-systolic volume; LVSV: left ventricular stroke volume; LVEF: left ventricular ejection fraction; LVM: left ventricular mass; LAV: left atrial volume; E: peak early diastolic filling velocity; A: late diastolic filling velocity during atrial contraction; e’: mitral annular tissue velocity during early filling; RWT: relative wall thickness; PASP: pulmonary artery systolic pressure
  3. *p-value < 0.05 vs. women without DM
  4. #p-value < 0.05 vs. men without DM