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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to diabetes therapy in original cohort and inverse probability of treatment weighted pseudo-cohort within the Korean Acute Heart Failure (KorAHF) registry

From: Impact of insulin therapy on the mortality of acute heart failure patients with diabetes mellitus

  Original cohort Weighted psueco-cohort
OHA-only (N = 620) Insulin-only (N = 682)   All insulin (N = 1120)   OHA-only (N = 426) Insulin-only (N = 682)   OHA-only (N = 697) All insulin (N = 1120)  
Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ASD Mean (SD) ASD Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ASD Mean (SD) Mean (SD) ASD
Age 71.2 (11.1) 67.3 (14.1) − 0.281 68.5 (12.8) − 0.211 69.9 (11.2) 67.3 (14.1) − 0.191 70.1 (10.8) 68.5 (12.8) − 0.121
BMI (kg/m2) 24.1 (3.7) 23.4 (3.9) − 0.181 23.4 (3.8) − 0.181 23.6 (3.8) 23.4 (3.9) − 0.03 23.4 (3.6) 23.4 (3.8) 0.01
SBP (mmHg) 134.4 (28.4) 130.0 (32.7) − 0.141 132.2 (32.9) − 0.07 135.0 (32.0) 130.0 (32.7) − 0.15 135.0 (32.0) 132.2 (32.9) − 0.09
DBP (mmHg) 79.5 (17.7) 75.6 (19.6) − 0.201 76.5 (19.3) − 0.161 77.7 (18.8) 75.6 (19.6) − 0.11 77.7 (18.8) 76.5 (19.3) − 0.06
Heart rate (bpm) 92.9 (25.5) 94.1 (25.5) 0.05 94.2 (25.4) 0.05 92.0 (24.79) 94.1 (25.5) 0.08 92.0 (24.8) 94.2 (25.4) 0.08
Glucose (mg/dL) 184.2 (76.0) 188.7 (109.1) 0.04 202.2 (108.3) 0.171 183.8 (83.7) 188.7(109.1) 0.05 183.8 (83.7) 202.2 (108.3) 0.05
Sodium (mmol/L) 137.3 (4.6) 136.0 (5.4) − 0.231 136.2 (5.3) − 0.211 136.6 (4.9) 136.0 (5.4) − 0.11 136.6 (4.9) 136.2 (5.3) − 0.06
Potassium (mmol/L) 4.3 (0.6) 4.7 (0.9) 0.381 4.6 (0.9) 0.361 4.6 (0.8) 4.7 (0.9) 0.05 4.6 (0.8) 4.6 (0.9) 0.10
BUN (mg/dL) 24.7 (14.3) 34.3 (21.1) 0.461 32.6 (20.0) 0.401 33.2 (20.3) 34.3 (21.1) 0.05 33.2 (20.3) 32.6 (20.0) 0.10
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.4 (1.0) 2.1 (1.9) 0.371 1.9 (1.7) 0.311 2.0 (1.6) 2.1 (1.9) 0.05 2.0 (1.6) 1.9 (1.7) 0.03
  N (%) N (%) ASD N (%) ASD N (%) N (%) ASD N (%) N (%) ASD
Female patients 291 (46.9) 310 (45.5) − 0.03 512 (45.7) − 0.03 182 (42.7) 310 (45.5) 0.06 301 (43.2) 512 (45.7) 0.05
Hypertension 462 (74.5) 436 (63.9) − 0.221 746 (66.6) − 0.171 309 (72.6) 436 (63.9) − 0.18 512 (73.5) 746 (66.6) − 0.151
IHD 225 (36.3) 247 (36.2) 0.00 410 (36.6) 0.01 153 (36.0) 247 (36.2) 0.01 263 (37.7) 410 (36.6) − 0.02
AF 182 (29.4) 177 (26.0) − 0.08 254 (22.7) − 0.161 120 (28.1) 177 (26.0) − 0.05 161 (23.1) 254 (22.7) − 0.01
COPD 75 (12.1) 77 (11.3) − 0.03 119 (10.6) − 0.05 62 (14.6) 77 (11.3) − 0.10 100 (14.3) 119 (10.6) − 0.12
CKD 96 (15.5) 182 (26.7) 0.251 278 (24.8) 0.221 132 (31.0) 182 (26.7) − 0.10 188 (27.0) 278 (24.8) − 0.05
CVA 105 (16.9) 122 (17.9) 0.03 201 (18.0) 0.03 72 (17.0) 122 (17.9) 0.02 121 (17.3) 201 (18.0) 0.02
BNP or NT-proBNP 2 (pg/mL) 482 (77.7) 551 (80.8) 0.08 908 (81.1) 0.09 344 (80.8) 551 (80.8) 0.00 565 (81.1) 908 (81.1) 0.00
NYHA class III–IV 537 (86.6) 620 (90.9) 0.151 1,006 (89.8) 0.111 388 (91.1) 620 (90.9) − 0.01 625 (89.6) 1006 (89.8) 0.01
LVEF (%) 36.4 (15.2) 36.7 (14.6) 0.02 36.6 (14.6) 0.02 36.2 (14.5) 36.7 (14.6) 0.03 36.2 (14.5) 36.6 (14.6) − 0.01
Management at admission
 Diuretics, IV 542 (87.4) 616 (90.3) 0.10 1013 (90.5) 0.10 381 (89.4) 616 (90.3) 0.03 619 (88.8) 1,013 (90.5) 0.06
 Inotropes, IV 163 (26.3) 417 (61.1) 0.721 641 (57.2) 0.631 223 (52.3) 417 (61.1) 0.181 353 (50.6) 641 (57.2) 0.141
 Vasodilators, IV 274 (44.2) 427 (62.6) 0.381 703 (62.8) 0.381 226 (53.0) 427 (62.6) 0.201 385 (55.2) 703 (62.8) 0.161
Management at discharge
 ACEIs/ARBs 461 (74.4) 332 (48.7) − 0.511 621 (55.5) − 0.381 247 (57.9) 332 (48.7) − 0.191 430 (61.7) 621 (55.5) − 0.13
 Beta-blockers 338 (54.5) 281 (41.2) − 0.271 537 (48.0) − 0.131 190 (44.6) 281 (41.2) − 0.07 340 (48.9) 537 (48.0) − 0.02
 MRAs 295 (47.6) 245 (35.9) − 0.241 443 (39.6) − 0.161 160 (37.5) 245 (35.9) − 0.03 274 (39.3) 443 (39.6) 0.01
 Warfarin 172 (27.7) 183 (26.8) − 0.02 264 (23.6) − 0.10 115 (26.9) 183 (26.8) 0.00 175 (25.1) 264 (23.6) − 0.04
  1. IPTW inverse probability treatment weight, OHA oral hypoglycemic agents, SD standard deviation, ASD absolute standard difference, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BUN blood urine nitrogen, IHD ischemic heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, COPD chronic lung obstructive disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVA cerebrovascular attack, BNP B-type natriuretic peptide, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide, NYHA new York heart association, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist
  2. 1P < 0.05
  3. 2BNP ≥ 500 pg/mL or NT-proBNP ≥ 1000 pg/mL