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Table 2 Stepwise regression analysis for all dialysis patients with 5-year survival rate, n = 5249

From: Effect of anti-diabetic drugs in dialysis patients with diabetes: a nationwide retrospective cohort study

Variables Univariate Multivariate
HR (95% CI) P-value aHR (95% CI) P-value
Age > 60 year 2.74 (2.45–3.07)  < 0.001 2.32 (2.08–2.61)  < 0.001
Gender—male 1.06 (0.96–1.18) 0.273 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.984
Grouping
 NDD 1   1  
 IDD 1.23 (1.09–1.37)  < 0.001 1.35 (1.20–1.52)  < 0.001
 PDD-M 1.46 (1.19–1.78)  < 0.001 1.52 (1.25–1.86)  < 0.001
 PDD-NM 2.58 (2.16–3.07)  < 0.001 2.12 (1.77–2.53)  < 0.001
Region
 Northern 1    
 Central 1.08 (0.95–1.22) 0.231   
 Southern/Eastern 0.92 (0.82–1.03) 0.153   
Insured premium (NT$)
 < 15,840 1   1  
 15,840–25,000 0.84 (0.74–0.94) 0.003 0.86 (0.75–0.96) 0.010
 > 25,000 0.72 (0.63–0.82)  < 0.001 0.85 (0.74–0.97) 0.014
Urbanization
 Urban 1    
 Sub-urban 1.11 (0.99–1.24) 0.067   
 Rural 1.23 (1.05–1.43) 0.008   
Hospital characteristics
 Medical center 1    
 Region/others 1.01 (0.91 -1.13) 0.836   
Number of admissions during the 12 months leading up to dialysis
 0–1 1   1  
 > 1 1.87 (1.69–2.07)  < 0.001 1.60 (1.42–1.80)  < 0.001
Dialysis modality
 Peritoneal dialysis 1    
 Hemodialysis 1.76 (1.40–2.22)  < 0.001   
Comorbidity
 Hypertension 1.22 (1.10–1.36)  < 0.001 0.78 (0.69–0.88)  < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 0.78 (0.69–0.88)  < 0.001   
 Gout 0.91 (0.78–1.07) 0.251   
 Congestive heart failure 1.37 (1.23–1.52)  < 0.001 1.15 (1.03–1.28) 0.012
 Cerebrovascular accident 1.51 (1.33–1.71)  < 0.001 1.26 (1.11–1.43) 0.001
 COPD 1.84 (1.58–2.14)  < 0.001 1.34 (1.14–1.56)  < 0.001
 Chronic liver disease 1.57 (1.30–1.90)  < 0.001 1.36 (1.12–1.66) 0.002
 Malignancy 1.81 (1.57–2.09)  < 0.001 1.39 (1.20–1.61)  < 0.001
ACEI/ARB use 0.58 (0.52–0.64)  < 0.001 0.68 (0.62–0.76)  < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drug use 0.50 (0.44–0.57)  < 0.001 0.61 (0.54–0.69)  < 0.001
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, aHR adjusted hazard ratio, NDD non-diabetic dialysis, IDD incident diabetes after dialysis, PDD-NM pre-existing diabetes dialysis patients not continuing medication, PDD-M pre-existing diabetes dialysis patients continuing medication, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACEI angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin II receptor blockers