Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with and without high-risk plaque

From: High-risk coronary artery plaque in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes: clinical risk factors and coronary artery calcium score

Variable Overall n = 230 HRP present n = 86 HRP not present = 144 p-value
Age 62 ± 10 62 ± 9 61 ± 10 0.40
Male, n (%) 144 (63) 77 (90) 91 (63)  < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 30.6 ± 3.78 29.4 ± 3.78 31.23 ± 5.17   0.01
Waist circumference, cm 107 ± 15 106 ± 9 107 ± 15 0.47
Waist / hip –ratio 1.00 ± 0.1 1.02 ± 0.1 0.99 ± 0.1 0.02
Outpatient diabetes care, n (%) 144 (63) 52 (60) 92 (64) 0.56
Hypertension, n (%) 160 (70) 57 (66) 102 (71) 0.52
Hypercholesterolemia, n (%) 179 (78) 65 (76) 114 (79) 0.53
Current smoker, n (%) 53 (23) 25 (29) 27 (19) 0.07
Pack years 15.9 ± 19.2 20.2 ± 22.7 13.1 ± 16.2  0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 141.3 ± 15.7 141.5 ± 15.8 141.2 ± 15.3 0.87
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 85.8 ± 10.2 86.6 ± 9.74 85.4 ± 10.53 0.38
Laboratory findings
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 2.0 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.8 0.15
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.3 ± 0.7 1.2 ± 0.5 1.3 ± 0.7 0.97
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 2.0 ± 1.1 2.2 ± 1.2 2.0 ± 1.1 0.21
 CRP, mg /L 2.9 ± 3.7 2.6 ± 3.7 3.0 ± 3.7 0.35
 Troponin, T ng/L 10.0 ± 8.6 10.8 ± 9.8 9.5 ± 7.8 0.28
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 60.1 ± 14.1 64.1 ± 15.8 57.7 ± 12.6  < 0.001
 CACS, median [IQR] 72.5 [1;460] 113.0 [25;408] 28.5 ± [0;612] 0.11
 Duration of diabetes, years 10.9 ± 8.0 10.1 ± 9.0 11.4 ± 7.3 0.21
 Lipid-lowering duration, years 5.3 ± 5.7 5.1 ± 5.7 5.5 ± 5.7 0.58
 Diabetic complications, n (%) 123 (54) 55 (64) 68 (47) 0.01
 Retinopathy, n (%) 52 (23) 25 (29) 27 (19) 0.07
 Albuminuria, n (%) 65 (28) 30 (35) 35 (24) 0.09
 Neuropathy, n (%) 57 (25) 23 (27) 34 (24) 0.28
Medication, n (%)
 Lipid-lowering, n (%) 178 (77) 65 (76) 113 (78) 0.61
 Aspirin, n (%) 30 (13) 10 (12) 21 (15) 0.30
 Beta blocker, n (%) 23 (10) 5 (6) 18 (13) 0.10
 ACE/ARB inhibitor, n (%) 152 (66) 56 (65) 96 (67) 0.81
 Insulin, n (%) 90 (39) 28 (33) 62 (43) 0.11
 GLP-1 inhibitor, n (%) 54 (23) 15 (17) 39 (27) 0.10
 DPP4 inhibitor, n (%) 35 (15) 17 (20) 18 (13) 0.14
 Biguanide, n (%) 192 (83) 77 (90) 115 (80) 0.06
 Sulfonylurea, n (%) 40 (17) 21 (24) 19 (13) 0.03
 SGLT2, n (%) 21 (9) 9 (10) 12 (8) 0.59
  1. Baseline characteristics were compared between patients with and without HRP. A p < 0.05 was considered a significant
  2. BMI body mass index, ACE/ARB ace converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high density lipoprotein, CRP c-reactive protein, CACS coronary artery calcium score, GLP-1 glucagon like peptid-1, DPP4 inhibitor dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 sodium glucose cotransport-2 inhibitor