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Table 1 Baseline characteristics for all 13 countries combined (post-match)

From: Cardiovascular outcomes with sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors vs other glucose-lowering drugs in 13 countries across three continents: analysis of CVD-REAL data

  SGLT-2 inhibitor (N = 440,599) oGLD (N = 440,599) std diff (%)
Age, years 58.0 (11.6) 57.8 (12.7) 1.4
Women 193,825 (44.0) 194,123 (44.1) 0.1
CV-history 134,331 (31.5) 129,993 (30.5) 2.2
 Myocardial infarction 19,346 (4.5) 18,968 (4.4) 0.4
 Unstable angina 22,030 (5.2) 21,489 (5.0) 0.6
 Heart failure 32,736 (7.7) 31,948 (7.5) 0.7
 Atrial fibrillation 18,448 (4.3) 17,910 (4.2) 0.6
 Stroke 47,437 (11.1) 45,353 (10.6) 1.6
PAD 22,391 (5.2) 22,054 (5.2) 0.4
Microvascular disease 218,288 (51.1) 214,311 (50.2) 1.9
CKD 24,528 (5.7) 23,969 (5.6) 0.6
Frailty (yes)* 36,736 (8.9) 36,498 (8.8) 0.2
Glucose-lowering therapies
 Metformin 334,441 (75.9) 335,731 (76.2) 0.7
 SU 197,712 (44.9) 197,117 (44.7) 0.3
 DPP-4i 205,550 (46.7) 203,469 (46.2) 0.9
 TZD 48,775 (11.1) 46,710 (10.6) 1.5
 GLP-1RA 36,903 (8.4) 34,033 (7.7) 2.4
 Insulin 109,470 (24.8) 104,973 (23.8) 2.4
Anti-hypertensive therapy 308,944 (70.1) 304,417 (69.1) 2.2
 Loop diuretics 38,852 (8.8) 37,785 (8.6) 0.9
 Low ceiling diuretics 54,358 (12.3) 53,731 (12.2) 0.4
 ACEi 97,176 (22.1) 97,019 (22.0) 0.1
 ARBs 183,048 (41.5) 181,136 (41.1) 0.9
Statin therapy 288,674 (65.5) 286,787 (65.1) 0.9
Beta blockers 114,079 (25.9) 112,092 (25.4) 1.0
Aldosterone antagonists 14,215 (3.2) 13,998 (3.2) 0.3
Index year
 2012 20 (0.0) 109 (0.1) 2.6
 2013 12,006 (5.5) 11,889 (5.4) 0.2
 2014 64,187 (16.2) 63,126 (15.9) 0.7
 2015 120,957 (30.8) 121,370 (30.9) 0.2
 2016 206,590 (49.3) 205,948 (49.2) 0.3
 2017 36,839 (20.7) 38,157 (21.4) 1.8
  1. All values are n (%) unless otherwise stated; the denominator varies between each variable due to data availability for each database; * ≥ 1 hospitalization of ≥ 3 consecutive days during the year prior to index
  2. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, CKD chronic kidney disease, CV cardiovascular, DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, oGLD other glucose-lowering drug, PAD peripheral artery disease, SGLT-2 sodium–glucose cotransporter-2, std diff standardized difference, SU sulfonylureas, TZD thiazolidinediones