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Table 1 Baseline patients’ characteristics (N = 27,246)

From: Higher long-term visit-to-visit glycemic variability predicts new-onset atrial fibrillation in patients with diabetes mellitus

  FGCV p value HVS p value
Q1 (0.34–11.69) Q2 (11.70–17.59) Q3 (17.60–26.19) Q4 (26.20–188.12) Q1 (1.37–18.17) Q2 (18.18–33.99) Q3 (34.00–51.10) Q4 (51.11–100.00)
N 6726 (24.69) 7099 (26.06) 6641 (24.37) 6780 (24.88)   6778 (24.88) 7855 (28.83) 6396 (23.48) 6217 (22.82)  
Age (year) 66.49 (9.38) 66.45 (9.51) 66.67 (9.75) 67.08 (10.14) < 0.001 66.59 (9.27) 66.76 (9.63) 66.73 (9.95) 66.58 (9.97) 0.598
Male 3576 (53.17) 3808 (53.64) 3446 (51.89) 3672 (54.16) 0.054 3457 (51.00) 4167 (53.05) 3432 (53.66) 3446 (55.43) < 0.001
Baseline BMI (kg/m2) 25.70 (4.00) 25.82 (3.94) 25.87 (4.47) 25.52 (4.37) < 0.001 25.57 (3.90) 25.78 (4.04) 25.92 (4.57) 25.63 (4.29) < 0.001
Hypertension 1188 (17.66) 1014 (14.28) 795 (11.97) 689 (10.16) < 0.001 1114 (16.44) 1129 (14.37) 779 (12.18) 664 (10.68) < 0.001
COPD 102 (1.52) 83 (1.17) 70 (1.05) 88 (1.30) 0.094 85 (1.25) 101 (1.29) 81 (1.27) 76 (1.22) 0.990
CAD 498 (7.40) 439 (6.18) 396 (5.96) 352 (5.19) < 0.001 413 (6.09) 506 (6.44) 382 (5.97) 384 (6.18) 0.685
PAOD 51 (0.76) 41 (0.58) 61 (0.92) 72 (1.06) 0.011 47 (0.69) 74 (0.94) 57 (0.89) 47 (0.76) 0.327
History of TIA/stroke 52 (0.77) 52 (0.73) 68 (1.02) 62 (0.91) 0.232 47 (0.69) 62 (0.79) 71 (1.11) 54 (0.87) 0.061
Baseline FPG (mg/dL) 127.75 (25.14) 136.41 (32.37) 146.04 (45.97) 165.60 (86.89) < 0.001 128.06 (30.78) 138.59 (43.06) 149.87 (61.03) 161.69 (73.27) < 0.001
Baseline HbA1c (%) 6.94 (1.06) 7.22 (1.16) 7.64 (1.46) 8.21 (1.83) < 0.001 6.83 (0.95) 7.30 (1.26) 7.71 (1.47) 8.24 (1.82) < 0.001
Baseline eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 77.85 (28.76) 75.73 (28.92) 72.52 (31.89) 64.96 (34.48) < 0.001 74.42 (28.04) 73.54 (30.63) 71.44 (32.36) 71.36 (34.87) < 0.001
CHA2DS2-VASc score 2.49 (1.10) 2.44 (1.09) 2.46 (1.12) 2.45 (1.13) 0.042 2.49 (1.09) 2.48 (1.11) 2.45 (1.14) 2.40 (1.11) < 0.001
Echocardiography
 LA size (cm) 3.89 (0.67) 3.91 (0.65) 3.90 (0.65) 3.93 (0.68) 0.139 3.91 (0.63) 3.92 (0.66) 3.91 (0.66) 3.90 (0.69) 0.733
 DT (s) 0.22(0.07) 0.23 (0.06) 0.23 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07) < 0.001 0.23 (0.06) 0.22 (0.06) 0.22 (0.07) 0.22 (0.07) < 0.001
 E (mm/s) 77.62 (24.73) 78.97(25.02) 80.50 (26.83) 84.70 (29.17) < 0.001 78.69 (24.39) 80.51 (26.24) 81.22 (27.69) 82.42 (28.55) < 0.001
 A (mm/s) 95.13 (22.88) 97.18 (23.29) 98.73 (24.30) 100.54 (26.25) < 0.001 97.40 (22.60) 97.64 (24.94) 98.36 (24.13) 98.93 (25.69) 0.174
 E/A 0.84 (0.39) 0.91 (3.30) 0.84 (0.49) 0.94 (3.12) 0.360 0.82 (0.37) 0.85 (0.56) 0.98 (4.52) 0.88 (1.04) 0.157
 E/Eʹ 26.72 (173.99) 17.17 (68.09) 18.21 (80.74) 22.49 (120.79) 0.675 30.50 (175.67) 15.26 (52.97) 24.00 (129.85) 19.58 (109.46) 0.369
 LVEF (%) 66.21 (11.09) 65.72 (11.48) 64.97 (11.84) 63.02 (13.09) < 0.001 66.97 (10.74) 65.39 (11.67) 63.99 (12.49) 63.21 (12.49) < 0.001
 LVIDs (cm) 2.99 (0.66) 3.01 (0.67) 3.03 (0.66) 3.09 (0.74) < 0.001 2.96 (0.62) 3.03 (0.67) 3.07 (0.71) 3.08 (0.73) < 0.001
 LVIDd (cm) 4.76 (0.60) 4.78 (0.59) 4.78 (0.59) 4.77 (0.65) 0.825 4.78 (0.56) 4.78 (0.60) 4.78 (0.62) 4.75 (0.65) 0.304
 LV mass (gm) 199.69 (59.25) 201.15(59.57) 204.25 (57.80) 208.61 (64.07) < 0.001 200.24 (57.41) 201.81 (57.87) 206.87 (62.90) 206.12 (63.46) < 0.001
 TR Vmax (cm/s) 252.82 (46.28) 252.82(46.37) 252.85 (48.64) 257.39 (52.05) < 0.001 255.17 (44.75) 253.30 (47.15) 253.27 (49.34) 255.24 (52.92) 0.317
Medication
 Antiplatelet 2706 (40.23) 3098 (43.64) 3028 (45.60) 3236 (47.73) < 0.001 2724 (40.19) 3457 (44.01) 3022 (47.25) 2865 (46.08) < 0.001
 Anticoagulant 351 (5.22) 359 (5.06) 390 (5.87) 471 (6.95) < 0.001 339 (5.00) 447 (5.69) 396 (6.19) 389 (6.26) 0.006
 CCB 3510 (52.19) 3937 (55.46) 3856 (58.06) 4153 (61.25)  < 0.001 3699 (54.57) 4435 (56.46) 3774 (59.01) 3548 (57.07) < 0.001
 Beta-blocker 2541 (37.78) 2760 (38.88) 2697 (40.61) 2983 (44.00) < 0.001 2610 (38.51) 3154 (40.15) 2678 (41.87) 2539 (40.84) 0.001
 ACEI/ARB 3956 (58.82) 4528 (63.78) 4364 (65.71) 4466 (65.87) < 0.001 4280 (63.15) 5049 (64.28) 4144 (64.79) 3841 (61.78) 0.002
 Diuretics 1673 (24.87) 1975 (27.82) 2246 (33.82) 3078 (45.40) < 0.001 1751 (25.83) 2451 (31.20) 2356 (36.84) 2414 (38.83) < 0.001
 Statin 3820 (56.79) 4210 (59.30) 3995 (60.16) 3888 (57.35) < 0.001 4096 (60.43) 4676 (59.53) 3777 (59.05) 3364 (54.11) < 0.001
 Propafenone 165 (2.45) 171 (2.41) 163 (2.45) 146 (2.15) 0.609 186 (2.74) 199 (2.53) 145 (2.27) 115 (1.85) 0.006
 Amiodarone 327 (4.86) 386 (5.44) 463 (6.97) 704 (10.38) < 0.001 348 (5.13) 494 (6.29) 490 (7.66) 548 (8.81) < 0.001
 Insulin 946 (14.06) 1446 (20.37) 2458 (37.01) 4257 (62.79) < 0.001 1049 (15.48) 2263 (28.81) 2700 (42.21) 3095 (49.78) < 0.001
 Metformin 5406 (80.37) 6081 (85.66) 5532 (83.30) 4994 (73.66) < 0.001 5698 (84.07) 6477 (82.46) 5134 (80.27) 4704 (75.66) < 0.001
 SGLT-2 inhibitor 808 (12.01) 1370 (19.30) 1461 (22.00) 1147 (16.92) < 0.001 858 (12.66) 1450 (18.46) 1326 (20.73) 1152 (18.53) < 0.001
 DPP4 inhibitor 2908 (43.24) 4225 (59.52) 4437 (66.81) 4758 (70.18) < 0.001 3172 (46.80) 4710 (59.96) 4310 (67.39) 4136 (66.53) < 0.001
 Sulphonylurea 2395 (35.61) 4416 (62.21) 4824 (72.64) 4684 (69.09) < 0.001 3174 (46.83) 4779 (60.84) 4236(66.23) 4130 (66.43) < 0.001
 Novonorm 354 (5.26) 664 (9.35) 876 (13.19) 1307 (19.28) < 0.001 513 (7.57) 857 (10.91) 867 (13.56) 964 (15.51) < 0.001
 Acarbose 703 (10.45) 1119 (15.76) 1378 (20.75) 1678 (24.75) < 0.001 863 (12.73) 1375 (17.50) 1367 (21.37) 1273 (20.48) < 0.001
 TZD 619 (9.20) 1303 (18.35) 1670 (25.15) 1722 (25.40) < 0.001 992 (14.64) 1494 (19.02) 1433 (22.40) 1395 (22.44) < 0.001
 GLP-1 agonist 37 (0.55) 132 (1.86) 261(3.93) 331 (4.88) < 0.001 90 (1.33) 175 (2.23) 252 (3.94) 244 (3.92) < 0.001
  1. FGCV coefficients of variability of fasting glucose, HVS HbA1c variability score, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD coronary artery disease, PAOD peripheral arterial occlusive disease, FPG fasting glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LA left atrium, DT deceleration time, E/A early diastolic transmitral flow velocity/late diastolic transmitral flow velocity, Eʹ early diastolic mitral annular velocity, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVIDd left ventricular internal diameter in diastole, LVIDs left ventricular internal diameter in systole, LV mass left ventricle mass, TR Vmax maximal tricuspid regurgitation velocity, CCB calcium channel blocker, ACEI/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, SGLT-2 inhibitor sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, DPP4 inhibitor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, TZD thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 agonist glucagon like peptide-1 agonist