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Table 3 Relationship of pioglitazone use to primary ischemic stroke stratified by duration of pioglitazone use in patients with type 2 diabetes

From: Pioglitazone use associated with reduced risk of the first attack of ischemic stroke in patients with newly onset type 2 diabetes: a nationwide nested case–control study

  Cases
(n = 4796)
Controls
(n = 23,980)
Crude OR (95% Cl) p-value AOR (95% Cl)* p-value
n (%) n (%)
Duration of use (days, quartile)       
 Never user 4,550 (94.9) 22,467 (93.7) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Ever-user       
  Q1 (< 336 days) 84 (1.8) 354 (1.5) 1.15 (0.88–1.51) 0.253 0.96 (0.72–1.29) 0.807
  Q2 (227–630 days) 68 (1.4) 364 (1.5) 0.93 (0.70–1.25) 0.469 0.78 (0.57–1.07) 0.220
  Q3 (631–1,129 days) 55 (1.2) 394 (1.6) 0.68 (0.50–0.92) 0.005 0.54 (0.39–0.75)  < 0.001
  Q4 (≥ 1,130 days) 39 (0.8) 401 (1.7) 0.46 (0.32–0.65)  < 0.001 0.45 (0.31–0.65)  < 0.001
Duration of use (years)       
 Never user 4550 (94.9) 22,467 (93.7) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Ever-user       
  Less than 1 year 91 (1.9) 410 (1.7) 1.08 (0.83–1.40) 0.253 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.480
  1–2 years 75 (1.6) 425 (1.8) 0.86 (0.65–1.14) 0.469 0.72 (0.53–0.97) 0.028
  2–3 years 37 (0.8) 260 (1.1) 0.72 (0.50–1.05) 0.005 0.56 (0.38–0.84) 0.004
  More than 3 years 43 (0.9) 418 (1.7) 0.48 (0.34–0.67)  < 0.001 0.46 (0.32–0.67)  < 0.001
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, Q quartile
  2. *Analysis was adjusted for the following covariates: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Diabetes Complications Severity Index, depression, statin use, aspirin use, antiplatelet use, anticoagulant use, antihypertensive drug use, antiarrhythmic drug use, use of antidiabetic medications, fasting blood glucose levels, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol levels, creatinine levels, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity