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Table 2 Reduced ischemic stroke risk associated with pioglitazone use in diabetes mellitus patients

From: Pioglitazone use associated with reduced risk of the first attack of ischemic stroke in patients with newly onset type 2 diabetes: a nationwide nested case–control study

  Cases
(n = 4,796)
Controls
(n = 23,980)
Crude OR (95% Cl) p-value AOR (95% Cl)* p-value
n (%) n (%)
Pioglitazone use       
 Never user 4550 (94.9) 22,467 (93.7) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Users 246 (5.1) 1513 (6.3) 0.79 (0.67–0.92) 0.002 0.69 (0.59–0.80)  < 0.0001
Cumulative dose of use       
 Never user 4550 (94.9) 22,467 (93.7) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Ever-user       
  Q1 (< 171.5 cDDDs) 85 (1.8) 356 (1.5) 1.17 (0.89–1.53) 0.253 0.99 (0.74–1.32) 0.938
  Q2 (171.5–324 cDDDs) 68 (1.4) 371 (1.5) 0.90 (0.67–1.20) 0.469 0.77 (0.56–1.06) 0.103
  Q3 (325–576 cDDDs) 50 (1.0) 390 (1.6) 0.63 (0.46–0.87) 0.005 0.50 (0.36–0.70)  < 0.001
  Q4 (≥ 577 cDDDs) 43 (0.9) 396 (1.7) 0.50 (0.36–0.71)  < 0.001 0.48 (0.33–0.69)  < 0.001
  1. AOR adjusted odds ratio, cDDDs cumulative defined daily doses, CI confidence interval, Q quartile
  2. *Analysis was adjusted for the following covariates: hypertension, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Diabetes Complications Severity Index, depression, statin use, aspirin use, antiplatelet use, anticoagulant use, antihypertensive drug use, antiarrhythmic drug use, use of antidiabetic medications, fasting blood glucose levels, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol levels, creatinine levels, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity