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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke (cases) and controls

From: Pioglitazone use associated with reduced risk of the first attack of ischemic stroke in patients with newly onset type 2 diabetes: a nationwide nested case–control study

Variables Cases
(n = 4796)
Controls
(n = 23,980)
SMD
n (%) n (%)
Age 61.88 ± 8.98 61.88 ± 8.98  < 0.001
Women 2034 (42.4) 10,170 (42.4)  < 0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 6.08 ± 3.34 6.08 ± 3.34 0.001
 < 5 years 1929 (40.2) 9633 (40.2)  
 5–10 years 2175 (45.4) 10,876 (45.4)  
 ≥ 10 years 692 (14.4) 3471 (14.5)  
BMI    0.035
 < 18.5 kg/m2 59 (1.2) 210 (0.9)  
 18.5–22.9 kg/m2 1002 (20.9) 5036 (2.10)  
 23–25 kg/m2 1185 (24.7) 6008 (25.1)  
 ≥ 25 kg/m2 2550 (53.2) 12,726 (47.76)  
Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL)a 138.54 ± 53.91 134.89 ± 47.76 0.072
BP (mmHg)a    
 Systolic 134.92 ± 17.91 132.38 ± 17.04 0.146
 Diastolic 82.14 ± 11.37 80.83 ± 10.74 0.118
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)a 205.23 ± 42.81 203.90 ± 41.61 0.032
Creatinine (mg/dL) 1.02 ± 0.86 1.03 ± 0.95 0.005
Hypertension 3922 (81.8) 17,998 (78.1) 0.164
Atrial fibrillation 339 (7.1) 728 (3.0) 0.185
Ischemic heart disease 1269 (26.5) 5571(23.2) 0.075
Heart failure 732 (15.3) 2552 (10.6) 0.138
Dyslipidemia 2,446 (51.0) 13,484 (56.2) 0.105
CCI    0.03
 0 1442 (30.1) 7059 (29.4)  
 1 1156 (24.1) 5583 (23.3)  
 2 2198 (45.8) 11,338 (47.3)  
aDCSI    0.147
 0 4175 (87.1) 21,951 (91.5)  
 1 445 (9.3) 1402 (5.8)  
 2 176 (3.7) 627 (2.6)  
Depression 663 (13.8) 2,969 (12.4) 0.043
Medication    
 Statin 2589 (54.0) 13,445 (56.1) 0.042
 Aspirin 2788 (58.1) 12,741 (53.1) 0.101
 Antiplatelet 961 (20.0) 2991 (12.5) 0.206
 Anticoagulant 204 (4.3) 438 (1.8) 0.142
 Antihypertensive agents 3551 (74.0) 16,150 (67.3) 0.147
 Antiarrhythmic agents 551 (11.5) 2188 (9.1) 0.078
Antidiabetic medication    
 Biguanide 3813 (79.5) 17,598 (73.4) 0.145
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 411 (8.6) 1716 (7.2) 0.053
 DPP- IV inhibitors 1220 (25.4) 4721 (19.7) 0.138
 Insulin 1983 (41.3) 5177 (21.6) 0.435
 SGLT2 inhibitors 47 (1.0) 174 (0.7) 0.028
 Sulfonylurea 3550 (74.0) 15,972 (66.6) 0.163
Smoking    
 None 2963 (61.8) 15,772 (65.8) 0.154
 Past 570 (11.9) 3399 (14.2)  
 Current 1263 (26.3) 4809 (20.1)  
Alcohol use    0.056
 Low 3497 (72.9) 17,561 (73.2)  
 Moderate 953 (19.9) 5002 (20.9)  
 Heavy 346 (7.2) 1417 (5.9)  
Physical activity    0.121
 Yes (≥ 1 time per week) 3182 (66.3) 17,244 (71.9)  
  1. aDCSI adapted Diabetes Complication Severity Index, BP blood pressure, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, DPP-IV dipeptidyl peptidase IV, SGLT2 sodium-glucose co-transporter 2, SMD Standardized mean difference
  2. aMean and standard deviation of the continuous independent variables in this study