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Table 1 Characteristics of the individuals by tertiles of plasma succinate levels

From: Elevated plasma succinate levels are linked to higher cardiovascular disease risk factors in young adults

  Plasma succinate tertiles P
Low (11.6–55.1 µM)
n = 34
Intermediate (55.2–71.4 µM)
n = 33
High (71.5–129.8 µM)
n = 33
Age (years) 21.7 ± 2.3 22.6 ± 2.1 21.6 ± 1.9 0.137
Sex (n, %) 0.777
 Men 13 (38.2) 10 (30.3) 12 (36.4)  
 Women 21 (61.8) 23 (69.7) 21 (64.6)  
Weight status (n, %) 0.097
 Normal-weight 23 (67.7) 19 (57.6) 15 (45.5)  
 Overweight 8 (23.5) 11 (33.3) 10 (30.3)  
 Obese 3 (8.8) 3 (9.1) 8 (24.2)  
BMI (kg/m2) 24.2 ± 3.8 24.0 ± 3.8 26.1 ± 5.2 0.091
LMI (kg/m2) 14.8 ± 2.1 14.1 ± 2.2 15.1 ± 2.7 0.275
FMI (kg/m2) 8.1 ± 2.7 8.5 ± 2.6 9.6 ± 3.3 0.077
Body fat (%) 33.6 ± 7.4 35.8 ± 6.7 37.0 ± 8.1 0.170
VAT (g) 289* ± 146 346 ± 178 411* ± 201 0.020
Waist circumference (cm) 78.8 ± 11.9 80.9 ± 13.3 84.3 ± 14.7 0.247
Glucose (mg/dL) 86.5 ± 6.2 88.5 ± 6.5 87.3 ± 6.9 0.466
Insulin (μUI/mL) 7.4 ± 3.9 8.2 ± 3.9 9.6 ± 6.0 0.126
HOMA index 1.6 ± 1.0 1.8 ± 1.0 2.1 ± 1.6 0.152
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 156.2 ± 25.0 162.6 ± 31 170.2 ± 34 0.230
HDL-C (mg/dL) 51.3 ± 9.7 52.4 ± 9.5 54.2 ± 15 0.808
LDL-C (mg/dL) 91.2 ± 23 94.3 ± 25 95.7 ± 29 0.907
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 68.2* ± 28 80.0 ± 40 111.8* ± 70 0.002
C-reactive protein (mg/L) 1.7* ± 2.2 2.1 ± 2.1 3.8* ± 5.1 0.039
SBP (mmHg) 114.1 ± 11 116.7 ± 11 120.4 ± 12 0.082
DBP (mmHg) 68.8* ± 7.7 71.4 ± 5.5 73.7* ± 7.6 0.023
Metabolic syndrome ATPIII (n, %) 0 (0) 1 (3) 4 (12.1) 0.068
Cardiorespiratory fitness (mL/kg/min) 44.9* ± 7.3 38.8* ± 7.7 40.6 ± 6.9 0.004
BAT volume (mL) 71.3 ± 47.3 71.0 ± 68.8 64.3 ± 56.2 0.825
BAT SUVmean 4.0 ± 2.1 3.6 ± 2.0 3.8 ± 1.8 0.794
Basal metabolic rate (kcal/d) 1335 ± 570 1518 ± 896 1407 ± 198 0.534
Energy intake (kcal/d) 1904 ± 463 1769 ± 397 1950 ± 497 0.115
Energy density intake (kcal/g/d) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.3 0.333
Fat intake (g/d) 84.8 ± 25.9 78.3 ± 26.4 85.7 ± 23.9 0.156
Protein intake (g/d) 77.8* ± 20.2 70.2* ± 14.6 76.4 ± 21.6 0.003
Carbohydrates intake (g/d) 202.4 ± 67.0 191.1 ± 64.4 214.2 ± 73.6 0.378
  1. Significant P values (P < 0.05) are shown in bold
  2. Data are presented as mean and standard deviation (SD), otherwise stated
  3. ATPIII National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, BAT brown adipose tissue, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FMI fat mass index, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HOMA index homeostatic model assessment, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LMI lean mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, SUV standardized uptake value, VAT visceral adipose tissue
  4. P from one-way analysis of variance, or from chi-square test (categorical variables). Plasma succinate levels are computed as tertiles
  5. *Symbols indicates significant differences between groups (P < 0.05) after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons