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Table 2 Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of association between weight change categories and incident CVD: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, Iran, 1999–2018

From: Weight change and risk of cardiovascular disease among adults with type 2 diabetes: more than 14 years of follow-up in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  Model 1 Model 2
HR (95% CI) P-value HR (95% CI) P-value
Weight change categories
 Lost > 5% 1.18 (0.84–1.65) 0.333 1.11 (0.79–1.56) 0.538
 Lost 3% to 5% 1.04 (0.70–1.53) 0.863 0.89 (0.60–1.33) 0.571
 Stable (± 3%) Reference   Reference  
 Gained 3% to 5% 0.69 (0.42–1.11) 0.128 0.76 (0.46–1.23) 0.260
 Gained > 5% 0.71 (0.49–1.03) 0.075 0.70 (0.48–1.01) 0.058
Age, year 1.05 (1.04–1.06) < 0.001 1.05 (1.03–1.07) < 0.001
Women (men as reference) 0.90 (0.70–1.15) 0.394 0.78 (0.58–1.05) 0.101
BMI, kg/m2    1.00 (0.97–1.03) 0.894
Educational level, years
 > 12    Reference  
 6–12    0.81 (0.47–1.38) 0.437
 < 6    0.82 (0.48–1.39) 0.459
Current smoker, yes    1.64 (1.03–2.61) 0.036
GLD use, yes    1.62 (1.21–2.16) 0.001
Family history of premature CVD, yes    1.15 (0.84–1.57) 0.389
Hypertension, yes    1.73 (1.32–2.26)  < 0.001
Hypercholesterolemia, yes    1.77 (1.27–2.48) 0.001
CKD, yes    0.78 (0.58–1.05) 0.097
FPG, mmol/L    1.04 (1.00–1.08) 0.039
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and sex. Model 2: Model 1 + further adjusted for BMI, educational level, current smoking (at first follow-up), GLD use (at baseline or first follow-up), family history of premature CVD, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, CKD, and FPG
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, BMI body mass index, GLD glucose-lowering drugs, CKD chronic kidney disease, FPG fasting plasma glucose