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Table 3 Results of Cox survival analyses for the excess risks associated with hematological parameters, divided into tertiles, for the occurrence of future cardiovascular complications and all-cause mortality

From: Importance of hematological parameters for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Outcomes
Hematological parameters
Model 1
HR (95% CI)
Model 2
HR (95% CI)
C-statistica
(AUC)
Relative IDIa
(%)
Total CV events (n = 212)    0.725 (0.684–0.765)  
 Haemoglobin 0.79 (0.55–1.15) 0.88 (0.61–1.29)
 RDW 1.06 (0.75–1.48) 1.07 (0.76–1.52)
 Leukocytes 1.16 (0.83–1.63) 0.90 (0.63–1.27)
 Neutrophyls 1.26 (0.89–1.76) 1.08 (0.76–1.53)
 Lymphocytes 0.80 (0.58–1.13) 0.66 (0.46–0.94)‡ 0.728§ 4.6%§
 Monocytes 1.17 (0.83–1.63) 0.93 (0.66–1.33)
 Platelets 1.16 (0.82–1.66) 1.12 (0.78–1.60)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.55 (1.11–2.16)† 1.47 (1.04–2.07)‡ 0.729§ 5.4%§
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.79 (0.55–1.13) 0.87 (0.60–1.26)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.44 (1.03–2.01)‡ 1.50 (1.06–2.12)‡ 0.729§ 4.6%§
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.31 (0.93–1.83) 1.04 (0.72–1.50)
Major CV events (n = 174)    0.716 (0.673–0.760)  
 Haemoglobin 0.74 (0.49–1.10) 0.75 (0.50–1.14)
 RDW 1.07 (0.74–1.55) 1.10 (0.76–1.61)
 Leukocytes 1.30 (0.89–1.90) 1.02 (0.69–1.52)
 Neutrophyls 1.24 (0.85–1.80) 1.08 (0.74–1.59)
 Lymphocytes 0.88 (0.60–1.27) 0.74 (0.50–1.10)
 Monocytes 1.21 (0.83–1.76) 0.96 (0.64–1.43)
 Platelets 1.23 (0.83–1.82) 1.23 (0.83–1.83)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.32 (0.93–1.88) 1.21 (0.84–1.75)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.82 (0.56–1.20) 0.90 (0.61–1.34)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.40 (0.97–2.02) 1.48 (1.01–2.16)‡ 0.721§ 6.2%§
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.45 (0.99–2.11) 1.15 (0.76–1.75)
CV mortality (n = 131)    0.716 (0.668–0.765)  
 Haemoglobin 0.83 (0.52–1.32) 0.85 (0.52–1.37)
 RDW 1.43 (0.91–2.22) 1.45 (0.92–2.27)
 Leukocytes 1.24 (0.80–1.91) 0.99 (0.63–1.54)
 Neutrophyls 1.25 (0.81–1.92) 1.11 (0.71–1.72)
 Lymphocytes 0.77 (0.50–1.18) 0.63 (0.40–0.99)‡ 0.719§ 4.1%§
 Monocytes 1.20 (0.78–1.85) 0.94 (0.59–1.48)
 Platelets 0.93 (0.58–1.48) 0.90 (0.56–1.44)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.39 (0.93–2.07) 1.33 (0.88–2.02)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.60 (0.38–0.95)‡ 0.62 (0.39–1.00)
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.53 (0.99–2.35) 1.64 (1.06–2.56)‡ 0.723§ 8.2%§
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.56 (1.00–2.44)‡ 1.22 (0.75–1.98)
All-cause mortality (n = 264)    0.755 (0.717–0.793)  
 Haemoglobin 0.70 (0.50–0.98)‡ 0.76 (0.54–1.07)
 RDW 1.10 (0.82–1.49) 1.09 (0.80–1.48)
 Leukocytes 1.18 (0.87–1.60) 1.00 (0.73–1.36)
 Neutrophyls 1.17 (0.86–1.60) 1.08 (0.79–1.48)
 Lymphocytes 0.66 (0.49–0.90)† 0.58 (0.42–0.80)* 0.758§ 2.6%§
 Monocytes 1.37 (1.01–1.86)‡ 1.15 (0.83–1.58)
 Platelets 1.11 (0.80–1.52) 1.08 (0.79–1.50)
 Neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.45 (1.08–1.96)‡ 1.36 (1.00–1.85)‡ 0.756§ 0.5%§
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 0.56 (0.40–0.76)* 0.59 (0.43–0.83)† 0.759§ 5.3%§
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.39 (1.03–1.87)‡ 1.43 (1.05–1.94)‡ 0.756§ 0.5%§
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 1.48 (1.09–2.01)‡ 1.20 (0.86–1.68)
  1. Values are hazard ratios of the highest tertile subgroup in relation to the lowest one and their 95% confidence intervals; *p < 0.001; †p < 0.01; ‡p < 0.05
  2. The cut-off values of tertiles of each hematological parameter are the following: haemoglobin 13.0 and 14.2 g/dl; RDW 12.5 and 13.5%; leucocytes 6.3 and 8.1 × 103 cells/mm3; neutrophyls 3.5 and 4.7 × 103 cells/mm3; lymphocytes 1.8 and 2.5 × 103 cells/mm3; monocytes 407 and 552 cells/mm3; platelets 210 and 268 × 103 cells/mm3; neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio 1.56 and 2.22; lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 3.94 and 5.35; platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 95.68 and 129.78; monocyte-to-HDL ratio 9.37 and 13.83
  3. Model 1 was adjusted for age and sex
  4. Model 2 was adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, smoking, physical activity, office systolic BP, number and classes of anti-hypertensive drugs in use, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline, baseline HbA1c and LDL-cholesterol, and use of insulin, statins and aspirin
  5. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, CV cardiovascular, RDW red cell distribution width
  6. aC-statistics and relative IDIs were calculated only in case the parameter was significantly associated with the outcome in Model 2, which was the reference model without the hematological parameter.§ None of the C-statistics were significantly higher than that of the baseline model, as well as no relative IDI was statistically significant