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Table 1 Characteristics of all diabetic patients and divided into tertiles of the neutrophyl-to-lymphocyte ratio

From: Importance of hematological parameters for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Characteristics All patients
(n = 689)
1st tertile
 < 1.6
(n = 229)
2nd tertile
 ≥ 1.6 to < 2.2
(n = 230)
3rd tertile
 ≥ 2.2
(n = 230)
Age (years) 60.0 (9.6) 60.0 (9.4) 59.0 (9.4) 61.0 (9.8)
Male sex (%) 39.2 34.5 37.8 45.2
BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 (4.8) 30.1 (4.8) 30.1 (4.9) 29.0 (4.8)‡
Smoking, current/past (%) 45.1 43.2 39.7 52.2‡
Physical activity (%) 22.2 24.0 19.2 23.5
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (3–15) 7 (3–14) 7 (3–14.5) 9 (4–17)
Chronic diabetic complications (%)     
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.2 8.7 11.4 7.4
 Coronary artery disease 15.1 14.8 11.8 18.7
 Peripheral artery disease 16.9 16.6 14.0 20.1
 Retinopathy 32.3 31.8 31.5 33.6
 Nephropathy 31.6 28.1 29.3 37.4
 Peripheral neuropathy 29.1 30.1 25.1 31.9
 Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy 24.7 20.6 26.5 27.0
Diabetes treatment (%)     
 Metformin 87.9 88.2 88.6 87.0
 Sulfonylureas 43.0 40.6 45.0 43.5
 Insulin 48.1 48.0 48.9 47.4
 Aspirin 89.6 88.2 88.3 92.2
 Dyslipidemia (%) 87.1 86.5 86.0 88.7
 Statins use (%) 77.0 75.0 73.4 82.5‡
Arterial hypertension (%) 86.6 86.5 86.0 88.7
Number of anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (1–3) 3 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4)
Blood pressures (mmHg)     
 Mean clinic SBP 140 (19) 140 (19) 140 (20) 141 (19)
 Mean clinic DBP 79 (11) 79 (11) 80 (11) 79 (10)
Hematological parameters     
 Haemoglobin (g/dl) 13.7 (1.5) 13.6 (1.5) 13.7 (1.5) 13.6 (1.6)
 RDW (%) 13.1 (1.3) 13.0 (1.5) 13.0 (1.3) 13.2 (1.4)
 Leukocytes (× 103 cells/mm3) 7.4 (2.1) 6.7 (2.0) 7.3 (2.0)† 8.1 (2.1)*
 Neutrophyls (× 103 cells/mm3) 4.3 (1.6) 3.2 (1.1) 4.2 (1.1)* 5.4 (1.6)*
 Lymphocytes (× 103 cells/mm3) 2.2 (0.8) 2.7 (0.9) 2.3 (0.7)* 1.8 (0.5)*
 Monocytes (cells/mm3) 500 (185) 473 (183) 497 (171) 528 (197)†
 Platelets (× 103 cells/mm3) 244 (74) 250 (83) 243 (65) 241 (74)
 Lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio 5.0 (2.4) 6.4 (2.8) 4.9 (1.7)* 3.8 (1.8)*
 Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio 118.2 (46.3) 98.4 (35.8) 113.5 (35.7)* 142.6 (52.4)*
 Monocyte-to-HDL ratio 12.7 (6.3) 12.0 (5.9) 12.7 (6.5) 13.3 (6.5)
Laboratory variables     
 Mean HbA1c (%) 7.7 (1.6) 7.7 (1.6) 7.6 (1.5) 7.7 (1.6)
 (mmol/mol) 61 (11.6) 61 (11.6) 60 (10.5) 61 (11.6)
 Mean triacylglycerol (mmol/L) 1.55 (1.08–2.22) 1.60 (1.14–2.29) 1.59 (1.12–2.30) 1.43 (1.00–2.07)
 Mean HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.14 (0.44) 1.14 (0.28) 1.11 (0.28) 1.16 (0.65)
 Mean LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.77 (0.85) 2.84 (0.83) 2.79 (0.88) 2.74 (0.85)
 C-reactive protein (CRP) mg/L 2.9 (1.2–6.2) 2.7 (0.9–6.1) 3.1 (1.5–6.3) 2.8 (1.3–6.5)
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 81 (20) 82 (19) 83 (21) 79 (21)
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 13 (7–41) 14 (7–32) 13 (7–39) 15 (7–52)
Macrovascular outcomesa     
 Total CV events 212 (35.2) 62 (29.9) 61 (29.9) 89 (46.7)†
 Major CV events 174 (27.8) 56 (26.5) 45 (21.2) 73 (36.3)†
 Cardiovascular mortality 131 (20.1) 44 (19.9) 30 (13.6) 57 (27.3)†
 All-cause mortality 264 (40.5) 80 (36.2) 78 (35.2) 106 (50.7)†
Microvascular outcomesb     
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 551) 161 (50.7) 51 (49.5) 56 (53.2) 54 (49.4)
 Renal composite 206 (37.7) 67 (36.1) 63 (33.3) 76 (44.4)
 Microalbuminuria (incident) 127 (25.6) 43 (25.4) 35 (20.4) 49 (31.4)
 Renal failure 104 (17.0) 29 (14.0) 34 (16.4) 41 (21.0)
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 525) 179 (34.1%) 51 (28.5%) 65 (36.9%) 63 (37.1%)
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range). BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, RDW red cell distribution width, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, CV cardiovascular
  2. aValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 1000 patient-years of follow-up)
  3. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 1000 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)
  4. ‡p < 0.05; †p < 0.01; *p < 0.001 (after Bonferroni’s correction) for comparisons with the reference 1st tertile subgroup