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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants after propensity score matching

From: Cardiovascular and mortality benefits of sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: CVD-Real Catalonia

  Total population
N = 25,834
oGLD
N = 12,917
SGLT2i
N = 12,917
Standardized mean differences
Age, mean (SD), years 62.9 (11.1) 62.8 (11.8) 62.9 (10.4) 0.007
Gender, n (%), females 11,331 (43.9) 5682 (44.0) 5649 (43.7) 0.005
Smoking, n (%) 4145 (16.3) 2081 (16.3) 2064 (16.2) 0.004
Diabetes duration ≥ 5 years, n (%) 20,065 (77.7) 10,037 (77.7) 10,028 (77.6) 0.002
HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 8.69 (1.57) 8.79 (1.64) 8.59 (1.48) 0.128
Missing’s, n (%) 5980 (23.1) 2948 (22.8) 3032 (23.5)
Deprivation index (medium–high), n (%) 12,356 (47.9) 6156 (47.6) 6200 (48.0) 0.016
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Cardiovascular disease 7019 (27.2) 3466 (26.8) 3553 (27.5) 0.015
 Heart failure 1421 (5.5) 692 (5.4) 729 (5.6) 0.013
 Myocardial infarction 1624 (6.3) 800 (6.2) 824 (6.4) 0.008
 Unstable angina 383 (1.5) 197 (1.5) 186 (1.4) 0.007
 Atrial fibrillation 1343 (5.2) 668 (5.2) 675 (5.2) 0.002
 Stroke 1488 (5.8) 752 (5.8) 736 (5.7) 0.005
 Chronic kidney disease 1697 (6.6) 1021 (7.9) 676 (5.2) 0.108
 Peripheral artery disease 1895 (7.3) 942 (7.3) 953 (7.4) 0.003
 Microvascular diseasea 5749 (22.3) 2884 (22.3) 2865 (22.2) 0.004
 Cancer 2975 (11.5) 1589 (12.3) 1386 (10.7) 0.049
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2, mean (SD) 58.8 (4.82) 58.5 (5.5) 59.0 (3.98) 0.100
 Missing’s, n (%) 6058 (23.4) 3003 (23.2) 3055 (23.7)
Concomitant medications, n (%)
 Anti-hypertensives 19,453 (75.3) 9645 (74.7) 9808 (75.9) 0.029
 ACE inhibitors 9891 (38.3) 4950 (38.3) 4941 (38.3) 0.001
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 8577 (33.2) 4272 (33.1) 4305 (33.3) 0.005
 Beta blockers 6926 (26.8) 3441 (26.6) 3485 (27.0) 0.008
 Calcium channel blockers 540 (2.1) 290 (2.3) 250 (1.9) 0.022
 Thiazides 2431 (9.4) 1219 (9.4) 1212 (9.4) 0.002
 Loop-diuretics 3008 (11.6) 1492 (11.6) 1516 (11.7) 0.006
 Statins 16,812 (65.1) 8381 (64.9) 8431 (65.3) 0.008
  1. aDefined as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, or nephropathy
  2. eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate by Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology formula, oGLD other glucose-lowering drugs, SGLT2i sodium–glucose co-transporter inhibitors