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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by quartiles of TyG index

From: Triglyceride-glucose index in the development of peripheral artery disease: findings from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

Characteristics Total
(n = 12,320)
Quartile 1 (n = 3080) Quartile 2 (n = 3080) Quartile 3 (n = 3080) Quartile 4 (n = 3080) P value
TyG index 8.7 ± 0.6 8.0 ± 0.2 8.4 ± 0.1 8.8 ± 0.1 9.4 ± 0.4  < 0.001
Age, years 54.3 ± 5.7 53.1 ± 5.7 54.2 ± 5.7 54.7 ± 5.7 55.1 ± 5.7  < 0.001
Male, % 5693 (46.2%) 1151 (37.4%) 1326 (43.1%) 1542 (50.1%) 1674 (54.4%)  < 0.001
White, % 9401 (76.3%) 2166 (70.3%) 2329 (75.6%) 2449 (79.5%) 2457 (79.8%)  < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 27.6 ± 5.2 25.6 ± 4.8 27.0 ± 5.1 28.1 ± 5.1 29.7 ± 5.1  < 0.001
SBP, mmHg 120.8 ± 18.6 117.3 ± 18.9 119.3 ± 18.4 121.4 ± 17.9 125.2 ± 18.4  < 0.001
DBP, mmHg 73.4 ± 11.2 72.3 ± 11.5 72.9 ± 11.2 73.7 ± 10.9 74.9 ± 10.9  < 0.001
Smoking status, %        < 0.001
 Current smoker 3131 (25.4%) 694 (22.5%) 823 (26.7%) 835 (27.1%) 779 (25.3%)  
 Former smoker 4086 (33.2%) 918 (29.8%) 976 (31.7%) 1042 (33.8%) 1150 (37.3%)  
 Never smoker 5103 (41.4%) 1468 (47.7%) 1281 (41.6%) 1203 (39.1%) 1151 (37.4%)  
Drinking status, %        < 0.001
 Current drinker 7079 (57.5%) 1849 (60.0%) 1780 (57.8%) 1741 (56.5%) 1709 (55.5%)  
 Former drinker 2304(18.7%) 488 (15.8%) 556 (18.1%) 613 (19.9%) 647 (21.0%)  
 Never drinker 2937 (23.8%) 743 (24.1%) 744 (24.2%) 726 (23.6%) 724 (23.5%)  
Education level, %        < 0.001
 Basic education 2756 (22.4%) 580 (18.8%) 678 (22.0%) 682 (22.1%) 816 (26.5%)  
 Intermediate education 5077 (41.2%) 1201 (39.0%) 1239 (40.2%) 1328 (43.1%) 1309 (42.5%)  
 Advanced education 4487 (36.4%) 1299 (42.2%) 1163 (37.8%) 1070 (34.7%) 955 (31.0%)  
Physical activity score       
 Sport index score 2.5 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.8 2.5 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.8 0.001
 Leisure time index score 2.4 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.6  < 0.001
Hypertension, % 5192 (42.1%) 979 (31.1%) 1170 (37.2%) 1370 (43.6%) 1779 (56.6%)  < 0.001
Diabetes, % 1378 (11.2%) 57 (1.8%) 129 (4.1%) 232 (7.4%) 984 (31.3%)  < 0.001
CHD, % 603 (4.9%) 67 (2.1%) 122 (3.9%) 175 (5.6%) 247 (7.9%)  < 0.001
Stroke, % 348 (2.8%) 66 (2.1%) 67 (2.1%) 96 (3.1%) 123 (3.9%)  < 0.001
Antihypertensive medication, % 3651 (29.6%) 586 (18.6%) 800 (25.4%) 976 (31.1%) 1370 (43.6%)  < 0.001
Lipid-lowering medication, % 347 (2.8%) 32 (1.0%) 77 (2.4%) 102 (3.2%) 140 (4.5%)  < 0.001
Fasting glucose, mg/dL 107.7 ± 37.0 94.2 ± 8.6 98.9 ± 11.5 103.7 ± 17.7 133.8 ± 63.1  < 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL 51.7 ± 16.9 62.9 ± 17.7 54.6 ± 15.6 47.8 ± 13.9 41.7 ± 12.3  < 0.001
LDL-C, mg/dL 137.4 ± 38.8 121.4 ± 34.1 136.3 ± 37.4 146.2 ± 38.1 145.5 ± 40.4  < 0.001
TC, mg/dL 214.2 ± 41.0 197.0 ± 36.0 209.8 ± 38.0 220.4 ± 39.4 229.4 ± 43.3  < 0.001
TG, mg/dL 125.4 ± 64.9 63.6 ± 12.4 94.7 ± 13.2 131.7 ± 20.9 211.2 ± 62.8  < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 102.1 ± 15.4 105.6 ± 14.8 102.5 ± 14.5 100.9 ± 15.4 99.9 ± 16.5  < 0.001
Fibrinogen, mg/dL 302.0 ± 64.5 294.03 ± 63.4 302.0 ± 64.2 303.7 ± 64.5 308.3 ± 65.1  < 0.001
Von Willebrand factor, % of standard 117.5 ± 47.8 112.5 ± 45.7 115.9 ± 45.3 116.7 ± 46.8 124.8 ± 52.2  < 0.001
Factor VIII activity, % of standard 130.5 ± 38.1 125.0 ± 35.2 128.0 ± 35.9 130.0 ± 36.1 139.3 ± 43.2  < 0.001
White blood cell count, × 109 6.1 ± 2.0 5.6 ± 1.8 6.0 ± 1.9 6.3 ± 2.3 6.6 ± 1.9  < 0.001
Incident PAD, % 1300 (10.6%) 222 (7.2%) 278 (9.0%) 359 (11.7%) 441 (14.3%)  < 0.001
Incident CLI, % 186 (1.5%) 22 (0.7%) 20 (0.6%) 41 (1.3%) 103 (3.3%)  < 0.001
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. ABI ankle-brachial index, BMI body mass index, CHD coronary heart disease, CLI critical limb ischemia, DBP diastolic blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, PAD peripheral artery disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, TyG triglyceride-glucose