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Table 2 Results of cardiopulmonary exercise test and exercise echocardiography

From: Mechanisms of reduced peak oxygen consumption in subjects with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes

  All patients
(n = 88)
Effort Intolerance   p value “Adjusted” p value
  Yes
(n = 48)
No
(n = 40)
Cardiopulmonary exercise test    
Workload (W) 118 ± 30 113 ± 25 126 ± 34 0.0460  < 0.0001
Time of effort (min) 11.4 ± 2.0 10.8 ± 1.8 12.0 ± 2.0 0.0050 0.0008
HR rest (bpm) 79.9 ± 13.6 80.5 ± 12.9 79.3 ± 14.6 ns ns
HR peak (bpm) 132.9 ± 18.6 129.2 ± 19.0 137.4 ± 17.2 0.0361 0.0015
HR peak (%max) 86.1 ± 12.0 82.6 ± 12.4 90.2 ± 10.2 0.0023 0.0015
HR reserve (bpm) 74.7 ± 15.7 76.1 ± 14.6 73.0 ± 16.9 ns ns
Chronotr. incomp. (n, %) 46 (53%) 34 (71%) 12 (30%) 0.0001 0.0005
MBP rest (mmHg) 102.9 ± 10.3 103.3 ± 10.9 102.5 ± 9.6 ns ns
MBP peak (mmHg) 146.5 ± 16.3 146.9 ± 18.2 146.1 ± 14.0 ns ns
RER peak 1.08 ± 0.06 1.09 ± 0.07 1.07 ± 0.06 ns ns
VO2/work slope 10.5 ± 1.5 9.9 ± 1.2 11.2 ± 1.4  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
VO2 rest (mL/min/kg) 4.1 ± 9.1 3.7 ± 1.2 4.6 ± 1.3 0.0015 0.0005
VO2 AT (mL/min/kg) 16.2 ± 4.9 13.7 ± 2.7 19.5 ± 5.2  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
VO2 AT (%peakVO2) 84.5 ± 11.9 81.5 ± 13.7 88.8 ± 7.7 0.0115 0.0047
VO2 peak (mL/min/kg) 18.8 ± 5.1 16.45 ± 3.19 21.69 ± 5.39  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
VO2 peak (%VO2max) 79.0 ± 17.0 66.7 ± 8.8 93.6 ± 11.9  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
VE/VCO2 slope 27.5 ± 3.8 27.2 ± 4.1 27.8 ± 3.3 ns ns
VD/VT (%) 15.6 ± 4.1 16.0 ± 3.9 15.2 ± 4.4 ns ns
O2 pulse peak (mL/bpm) 11.7 ± 2.8 11.3 ± 2.5 12.3 ± 3.0 ns  < 0.0001
O2 pulse peak (%max) 94.2 ± 18.0 84.3 ± 14.0 106.0 ± 15.0  < 0.0001  < 0.0001
AV O2 diff rest (mL/dL) 6.5 ± 2.3 6.1 ± 2.4 6.9 ± 2.3 ns 0.0218
AV O2 diff peak (mL/dL) 11.9 ± 3.2 11.3 ± 3.1 12.7 ± 3.3 0.0399 0.0002
Exercise echocardiography   
EDVi (mL/m2) 51.0 ± 11.1 51.7 ± 10.5 51.0 ± 13.0 ns ns
LVMi (g/m2) 86.3 ± 16.6 86.6 ± 14.4 87.4 ± 20.8 ns ns
LAVi (mL/m2) 24.7 ± 7.6 24.5 ± 8.2 25.5 ± 7.5 ns ns
SV rest (mL) 69.1 ± 14.8 69.5 ± 13.3 68.6 ± 13.0 ns ns
SV peak (mL) 102.1 ± 22.8 103.3 ± 26.6 100.7 ± 22.1 ns ns
CO rest (L/min) 5.5 ± 1.2 5.5 ± 1.3 5.4 ± 1.2 ns ns
CO peak (L/min) 13.7 ± 3.7 13.4 ± 3.7 14.0 ± 3.8 ns ns
LVEF rest (%) 58.9 ± 4.3 58.6 ± 0.7 58.6 ± 1.0 ns ns
LVEF peak (%) 67.6 ± 5.6 66.5 ± 6.1 68.9 ± 4.8 ns ns
ΔEF 8.6 ± 3.7 8.0 ± 4.1 9.5 ± .31 ns 0.0412
Contractility reserve (n, %) 53 (60%) 23 (26%) 30 (34%) 0.0154 0.0386
GLS rest (%) 16.3 ± 2.6 15.7 ± 2.5 17.0 ± 2.6 0.0321 ns
GLS 4 min (%) 18.4 ± 3.0 17.5 ± 2.9 19.5 ± 2.8 0.0044 0.0048
ΔGLS 2.1 ± 1.5 1.7 ± 1.5 2.5 ± 1.8 0.0293 0.0093
S’ mean rest (cm/sec) 9.2 ± 1.8 8.8 ± 1.8 9.6 ± 1.7 0.0364 ns
S’ mean peak (cm/s) 14.3 ± 3.0 13.5 ± 2.8 15.2 ± 3.0 0.0085 0.0006
ΔS’ mean 5.1 ± 2.1 4.7 ± 1.9 5.6 ± 2.3 ns 0.0023
E/e’ rest (cm/s) 8.3 ± 2.2 8.6 ± 2.3 8.0 ± 2.2 ns ns
E/e’ peak (cm/sec) 8.6 ± 2.0 8.7 ± 2.1 8.4 ± 1.9 ns ns
SVR rest (dyne*s/cm) 1,583 ± 367 1,578 ± 383 1,588 ± 353 ns ns
SVR peak (dyne*s/cm) 911 ± 218 932 ± 230 885 ± 203 ns ns
TAPSE/sPAP peak 0.95 ± 0.23 0.96 ± 0.21 0.94 ± 0.26 ns ns
TAPSE/CO peak 2.24 ± 0.62 2.33 ± 0.64 2.12 ± 0.58 ns ns
  1. The whole population and the two groups divided by the presence or absence of effort intolerance, are reported. P values were calculated as Student’s t test for comparisons of the means of the two groups, and “adjusted” p values were calculated after adjustment for age, sex, and BMI