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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Mechanisms of reduced peak oxygen consumption in subjects with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes

  All patients
(n = 88)
Effort Intolerance p value
Yes
(n = 48)
No
(n = 40)
Demographic and clinical data
Male gender (n, %) 71 (81%) 42 (88%) 29 (73%) ns
Age (years) 63.8 ± 9.2 62.0 ± 9.4 65.9 ± 8.5 0.0446
BMI (kg/m2) 29.0 ± 4.7 29.8 ± 5.4 28.0 ± 3.6 ns
Systolic BP (mmHg) 135.9 ± 15.5 136.5 ± 16.0 135.1 ± 15.1 ns
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 83.1 ± 9.6 83.3 ± 9.7 82.9 ± 9.7 ns
Alcohol (n, %) 5 (6%) 3 (6%) 2 (5%) ns
Smoke (n, %) 14 (16%) 10 (21%) 4 (10%) ns
Hypertension (n, %) 67 (76%) 38 (79%) 30 (73%) ns
Dyslipidemia (n, %) 66 (75%) 35 (73%) 31 (76%) ns
Duration of diabetes (years) 9.3 ± 8.0 9.9 ± 7.7 8.6 ± 8.4 ns
Therapy
ACEi/ARBs (n, %) 56 (63%) 30 (63%) 25 (63%) ns
Beta-blockers (n, %) 23 (26%) 12 (25%) 11 (27%) ns
Mineralocortic. Rec. Ant. (n, %) 3 (3%) 2 (4%) 1 (2%) ns
Hydrochlorothyazide (n, %) 13 (15%) 6 (13%) 7 (17%) ns
Furosemide (n, %) 3 (3%) 3 (6%) 0 (0%) ns
Statin (n, %) 63 (71%) 32 (67%) 30 (76%) ns
Metformin, n (%) 76 (85%) 41 (85%) 34 (85%) ns
GLP1R-A (n, %) 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 1 (2%) ns
DPP4i (n, %) 2 (2%) 2 (4%) 0 (0%) ns
SGLT2i (n, %) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) ns
Insulin (n, %) 14 (16%) 10 (21%) 4 (10%) ns
Biohumoral data
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 56.8 ± 10.4 56.9 ± 11.1 56.5 ± 9.7 ns
Cholesterol (mg/dL) 163.6 ± 18.4 157.6 ± 39.2 172.3 ± 35.4 ns
HDL-c (mg/dL) 49.5 ± 13.3 46.9 ± 11.2 53.2 ± 14.4 0.0283
LDL-c (mg/dL) 100.0 ± 32.9 94.6 ± 33.2 107.5 ± 31.1 ns
Ttriglycerides (mg/dL) 129.9 ± 57.5 137.3 ± 57.6 119.7 ± 56.6 ns
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.3 ± 1.3 14.2 ± 1.4 14.3 ± 1.1 ns
Creatinin (mg/dL) 0.89 ± 0.22 0.89 ± 0.20 0.90 ± 0.24 ns
eGFR (mL/min/1.73mq) 86.5 ± 15.8 89.5 ± 17.1 82.9 ± 13.6 0.0476
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.39 ± 1.39 5.49 ± 1.61 5.22 ± 1.10 ns
ACR (mg/g) 6.0 (0.0 – 14.3) 5.8 (1.9 – 27.6) 6.1 (0.0 – 9.9) ns
CRP (mg/dL) 0.278 ± 0.450 0.360 ± 0.590 0.193 ± 0.189 ns
BNP (pg/mL) 16 (10 – 33) 14 (10 – 37) 16 (10 – 29) ns
Vascular and endothelial data
RHI endoPAT 0.62 ± 0.28 0.63 ± 0.25 0.60 ± 0.32 ns
CAVI mean 9.32 ± 1.59 9.01 ± 1.69 9,67 ± 1.40 ns
  1. The study population is reported as a whole and divided in two groups based on the achievement of a peak oxygen uptake > 80% of the maximal theorical oxygen uptake. P values were calculated with a student t-test and were reported as “ns” if non significant