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Table 2 Cox proportional hazards models for the association of insulin treatment with risk of MACE and hospitalization for heart failure in the placebo group

From: Relation of insulin treatment for type 2 diabetes to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome: an analysis of the BETonMACE randomized clinical trial

Insulin-treated (n=420) Not insulin treated (n=786) Model Model covariates HR [95% CI] (insulin-treated/not treated) p-value
No. of events/N (%) No. of events/N (%)
73/420 (17.4)
28/420 (6.7)
76/786 (9.7)
21/786 (2.7)
1 Unadjusted MACE
1.89 [1.36–2.62] 0.0001
2.48 [1.40–4.40] 0.002
2 Age, sex, race, duration of diabetes, HbA1c, use of intensive statin, prior MI/PCI/CABG, and prior heart failure MACE
1.86 [1.27–2.73] 0.002
1.79 [0.92–3.47] 0.08
3 Model 2 plus adjustment for use of metformin, sulfonylurea, SGLT2i, and GLP-1 RA MACE
2.10 [1.42–3.10] 0.0002
2.34 [1.19–4.60] 0.01
  1. CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, GLP-1 RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, HHF hospitalization for heart failure, MACE major adverse cardiovascular events, MI myocardial infarction, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, SGLT2i sodium–glucose loop transporter 2 inhibitor