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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the patients according to insulin treatment

From: Relation of insulin treatment for type 2 diabetes to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndrome: an analysis of the BETonMACE randomized clinical trial

  All patients (N = 2418) Insulin-treated (N = 829) Not insulin-treated (N = 1589) Treated vs. not treated P-value
Demographics
 Age, years, mean (SD) 61.3 (9.5) 61.0 (9.4) 61.4 (9.6) 0.36
 Female, n (%) 618 (25.6) 239 (28.8) 379 (23.9) 0.008
 Non-White Race, n (%) 299 (12.4) 140 (16.9) 159 (10.0) < 0.0001
Medical history
 Duration of diabetes, years, mean (SD) 8.5 (7.6) 12.6 (8.0) 6.4 (6.5) < 0.0001
 Prior MI, PCI, or CABG; n (%) 865 (35.8) 331 (39.9) 534 (33.6) 0.002
 Heart failure; n (%) 348 (14.4) 141 (25.0) 207 (13.0) 0.01
Index ACS, n (%)
 STEMI 932 (52.7) 313 (37.8) 619 (39.0) 0.24
 Non-STEMI 836 (47.3) 304 (36.7) 532 (33.5) 0.24
 Unstable angina 625 (26.0) 200 (24.1) 425 (26.7) 0.19
 Revascularization for index ACS 1922 (79.5) 667 (80.5) 1255 (79.0) 0.42
Biometrics, mean (SD)
 Body mass index, kg/m2 30.3 (4.9) 30.2 (4.9) 30.3 (4.9) 0.66
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 129 (15) 130 (16) 129 (14) 0.24
Cardiovascular and diabetes medications, n (%)
 High-intensity statin 2195 (90.2) 770 (92.9) 1425 (89.7) 0.01
 ACE-inhibitor or ARB 2229 (92.2) 770 (92.9) 1459 (91.8) 0.40
 Dual anti-platelet therapy 2122 (87.8) 735 (88.7) 1387 (87.3) 0.36
 Metformin 1998 (82.6) 604 (72.9) 1394 (87.7) < 0.0001
 Sulfonylurea 707 (29.2) 177 (21.4) 530 (33.4) < 0.0001
 SGLT2 inhibitor 298 (12.3) 137 (16.5) 161 (10.1) < 0.0001
 GLP-1 receptor agonist 86 (3.6) 51 (6.2) 35 (2.2) < 0.0001
Clinical chemistry, median (Q1–Q3)
 Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 98.3 (76.2–126.2) 95.7 (73.8–127.9) 99.7 (77.3–125.5) 0.23
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 7.5 (6.1–9.7) 8.7 (6.8–11.4) 7.0 (5.9–9.0) < 0.0001
 Hemoglobin A1c, % 7.3 (6.4–8.7) 8.4 (7.5–9.6) 6.9 (6.2–7.8) < 0.0001
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 1.7 (1.3–2.2) 0.62