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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data of study participants

From: Association between carotid plaque vulnerability and high mobility group box-1 serum levels in a diabetic population

  ICAS (n = 347) WICAS (n = 526) p value
Men/female, n 118:229 192:334 0.384b
Age (years ± SD) 72.1 ± 3.9 71.8 ± 3.8 0.157a
Diabetes duration, (years ± SD) 13.3 ± 4.5 12.2 ± 3.4 0.209a
BMI (Kg/m2 ± SD) 30.7 ± 6.3 27.9 ± 4.6 < 0.01a
Smoking (current), n (%) 116 (33.4) 172 (32.7) 0.185b
Smoking (former), n (%) 145 (41.8) 221 (42.0) 0.261b
Hypertension, n (%) 221 (63.7) 215 (40.9) < 0.01b
CAD, n (%) 189 (54.5) 164 (31.2) < 0.01b
HIS, n (%) 164 (47.3) 0 (0.0) < 0.01b
PAD, n (%) 119 (34.3) 113 (21.5) < 0.01b
Hypercholesterolemia, n (%) 275 (79.3) 153 (29.1) < 0.01b
LDL-C (mg/dL ± SD) 154 ± 14.6 102 ± 11.2 < 0.01b
Triglycerides (mg/dL ± SD) 194 ± 20.1 139 ± 15.4 < 0.01b
Statins, n (%) 274 (78.9) 156 (29.7%) < 0.01b
Antihypertensive drugs, n (%) 223 (64.3) 214 (40.7) < 0.01b
Anti-diabetic treatment
 Diet only, n (%) 36 (10.4) 56 (10.6) 0.349b
 Oral agents, n (%) 169 (48.7) 259 (49.2) 0.328b
 Insulin therapy, n (%) 142 (40.9) 211 (40.2) 0.243b
  1. ICAS internal carotid artery stenosis; WICAS without internal carotid artery stenosis; BMI body mass index; CAD coronary artery disease; HIS history of ischemic stroke; PAD peripheral artery disease; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. aStatistical test performed with Student’s t test
  3. bChi-square test for categorical values