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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study populations

From: Metabolic syndrome and the plasma proteome: from association to causation

Variable Prevalent MetS Incident MetS
KORA (n = 998) HUNT (n = 923) p value* KORA (n = 623)
Agea (years) 59.3 (43–75) 68.93 (31.6–91.7) < 0.001 58.15 (43–74)
Sex femaleb 515 (51.6%) 235 (25.5%) < 0.001 379 (60.8%)
BMIc (kg/m2) 27.77 (4.58) 28.39 (3.97) 0.002 26.21 (3.87)
Waist circumferencec (cm) 94.56 (14.05) 100.18 (11.04) < 0.001 89.07 (11.44)
Waist hip ratioc 0.89 (0.08) 0.96 (0.07) < 0.001 0.86 (0.08)
Physically activeb 620 (62.1%) 468 (50.7%) < 0.001 416 (66.8%)
Smokingb    < 0.001  
 Never smoker 423 (42.4%) 231 (25%)   277 (44.5%)
 Former smoker 427 (42.8%) 497 (53.8%)   244 (39.2%)
 Current smoker 148 (14.8%) 195 (21.1%)   102 (16.4%)
Total cholesterolc (mg/dl) 221.99 (38.47) 178.50 (42.34) NA** 222.83 (37.11)
HDL- cholesterolc (mg/dl) 57.35 (15.19) 45.05 (11.25) NA** 62.84 (14.45)
Triglyceride levelc (mg/dl) 129.06 (87.68) 161.82 (86.81) NA** 96.59 (46.08)
Hypertensiond 398 (39.9%) 382 (41.4%) 0.544 143 (23.0%)
  1. *Continuous variables were tested for a difference between the two populations using t-tests and categorical variables with chi-square tests with continuity correction, **Differences between cohorts could not be statistically tested as KORA was measured in fasting samples and HUNT in non-fasting samples
  2. aMean (range)
  3. bNumber (percentage)
  4. cMean ± standard deviation. Hypertension was defined as having systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic ≥ 90 mmHg or known medication-controlled hypertension. In HUNT we additionally used the ICD-10 codes I10–I15 of the hospital and primary care data and the codes K86 or K87 of the International Classification of Primary Care, Second Edition, to identify participants with hypertension